Browsing Manitoba Heritage Theses by Title
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- ItemOpen AccessThe 1819-20 measles epidemic : its origin, diffusion and mortality effects upon the Indians of the Petit Nord(1992) Hackett, F. J. PaulIn 1819-20, measles swept through the native populations of the fur trading lands of the Canadian Northwest. This was the first such epidemic in this region and was accompanied by mortalities characteristic of virgin soil epidemics. This study seeks to establish the origins of this epidemic and the pathways by which it reached the Northwest. It then examines in detail the diffusion of the disease throughout the Petit Nord, or the eastern section of the Northwest lying to the east of Lake Winnipeg and between Hudson Bay and Lake Superior. Finally, it attempts to reconstruct the distribution and magnitude of the mortalities among the native peoples of this region. The evidence indicates that the measles diffused from the northeastern U.S. from an endemic focus comprised of the cities of Baltimore, New York, and Philadelphia. The virus was then relocated westward along two routes, entering the Canadian Northwest at Brandon House, on the eastern plains, and at Fort William, at the western end of Lake Superior. Within the Petit Nord, the disease was confined to the more heavily populated souihwestern sector, where it was carried by North West Company canoe brigades from Fort William. Among the afflicted populations, the severity of the disease and resultant mortality varied widely, with as many as two-thirds succumbing in some places and relatively few at others. The 1819-20 measles epidemic marked the beginning of a new era in the disease history of the Canadian Northwest. lt was the result of the breakdown in the isolation of the Northwest, a process which accelerated as the nineteenth century progressed and led to frequent epidemics of diseases previously absent from the region.
- ItemOpen AccessThe 1819-20 measles epidemic : its sociocultural and economic consequences in the Brandon House area(2002) Nordland, Lori Rae PodolskyThe Plains Cree, Assiniboine and Ojibwa of the Brandon House area were afflicted by the 1819-20 measles epidemic. Each group experienced different mortality rates as a result of differences in their coping strategies. This study examines the various mortality rates through factors such as nutritional intake, suitable housing and overall health. It then attempts to apply the Human Behaviour Model, as developed by Michael Trimble, to the situation at Brandon House and look for anomalies in his model. Finally, this thesis seeks to take a holistic approach in understanding the interrelationship between the local and global events occurring in the early part of the 1800s, as well as the political, social and economic changes experienced by the First Nations peoples. At this time, these people experienced sociocultural and economic changes that both impacted and were impacted by the 1819-20 measles epidemic. In examining the diffusion of the 1819-20 measles epidemic, Michael Trimble's model is based upon the Mandan-Hidatsa horticultural community. While some aspects of his model are applicable to the hunting-based economy of the First Nations people at Brandon House, socioeconomic factors including alcohol consumption are neglected. In addition, a more in-depth analysis of nutritional intake (diet) and social and mental health illuminate the importance of these factors on the immune system and their impact on mortality rates. As nutritional deficiency increases and health decreases, the immune system becomes compromised and a person becomes more susceptible to disease and secondary infections. As the Plains Cree and Assiniboine experienced a decline in their role as middlemen in the fur trade, they began to lose their economic and political position with the Mandan First Nations. Within the historical fur trade literature, political and socioeconomic events such as the "Horse Wars" appear to be removed from the affects of the disease, this is not always the case. Thus, the consequences of the 1819-20 measles epidemic were influenced by human behaviour since the cultural responses to disease are as important as the epidemiological factors.
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- ItemOpen AccessA 3 DOF pneumatic manipulandum for wrist rehabilitation(2020-09-24) Aleed, Yasser; Liang, Xihui (Mechanical Engineering) Szturm, Tony (Physical Therapy); Sepehri, Nariman (Mechanical Engineering)Robotic assistive technologies are increasingly used to enhance the physical rehabilitation of patients who have suffered disorders such as strokes. Not only does it make the lives of disabled and elderly patients easier, but it also improves their body functionalities. Robotic assistive technologies offer people a second chance to overcome challenges that come with their disability. The objective of the thesis is to design, prototype and evaluate a 3 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) pneumatic manipulandum for wrist rehabilitation that is capable of accommodating to wrist motions (ulnar deviation, radial deviation, flexion or extension). Since the wrist is the most mobile part of the hand, its post-stroke rehabilitation is difficult. In order to accommodate the wrist motion, 3 DOF are needed. 2 DOF are needed for the horizontal motion and another DOF to allow the manipulandum to move up and down with the wrist. Each DOF is actuated by one pneumatic actuator. The design is prototyped using a 3D printer. The workspace and the required force are analyzed and calculated based on the kinematics of the manipulandum. The pneumatic actuators that were chosen are available in non-magnetic material, which means they are compatible with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI-compatible). The manipulandum is connected to a Neuro Function Evaluation (NFE) game which is used in the Rehabilitation Centre in Winnipeg. While running the game, the manipulandum is tested and evaluated in assistive and resistive modes. The performance of the manipulandum is analyzed using two methods: image processing and file streaming. The image processing method determines the location of the ball and the location of the paddle of the NFE game in the screen by taking screenshots, while the file streaming method is used to obtain those two locations from the code of the game itself.
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- ItemOpen Access738 years of global climate model simulated streamflow in the Nelson-Churchill River Basin(2016) Vieira, Michael John Fernandes; Rasmussen, Peter (Civil Engineering) Stewart, Ronald (Environment and Geography) Koenig, Kristina (Manitoba Hydro); Stadnyk, Tricia (Civil Engineering)Uncertainty surrounds the understanding of natural variability in hydrologic extremes such as droughts and floods and how these events are projected to change in the future. This thesis leverages Global Climate Model (GCM) data to analyse 738 year streamflow scenarios in the Nelson-Churchill River Basin. Streamflow scenarios include a 500 year stationary period and future projections forced by two forcing scenarios. Fifty three GCM simulations are evaluated for performance in reproducing observed runoff characteristics. Runoff from a subset of nine simulations is routed to generate naturalized streamflow scenarios. Quantile mapping is then applied to reduce volume bias while maintaining the GCM’s sequencing of events. Results show evidence of future increases in mean annual streamflow and evidence that mean monthly streamflow variability has decreased from stationary conditions and is projected to decrease further into the future. There is less evidence of systematic change in droughts and floods.
- ItemOpen AccessA contemporary temple: designing a centre to promote mindfulness(2023-04-04) Agoushi, Hussein; Espersen-Peters, Kurt (Interior Design); Hare, Jason (Architecture); Roshko, TijenHumans have always tried to achieve deeper levels of meaning and find answers to the most fundamental question of “who we are.” Spirituality and religion are two of the most influential fields that provide an intellectual and social atmosphere for individuals to think, meditate and investigate the sacred and meaningful aspects of our existence. While doing this, as a side effect, the prevailing belief systems have divided people into groups and sects that often cannot necessarily coexist. This project aims to use interior design elements to build a centre that revives the classic sacred space concept, where contemporary individuals can experience mindful rituals and practice the spirituality rooted in our common understandings of human values. By promoting a sense of spatial coexistence, this project will try to alleviate tension caused by opposing worldviews. This centre will provide the necessary facilities for an interfaith community, including a meditation space, gallery, conference area, workshop area and a restaurant serving world cuisine. These spaces will help communities perform their cultural rituals and expose other individuals to our world's cultural diversity. The main research investigates the sacred architecture’s language and how we can apply it to contemporary architecture. This project attempts to revive the traditional relationship between space and individual understanding of spirituality. This will happen by analyzing the common interior design elements among meditative spaces which respond to our common desire for spirituality. The research explores the architectural qualities that were used throughout the world among various traditions that turn a space into a meditative and sacred space. The methodology used in this paper is mainly done by literature search from secondary resources including books and academic papers about sacred architecture, meditative spaces, spirituality and symbolism in sacred spaces. In addition, the study proposes architectural solutions to regenerate the architectural qualities that resemble the timeless classic worship spaces around the world that has spiritual and sacred qualities embedded within their design. This project attempts to create meditative and playful spaces that help visitors build a connection with their innermost selves and contemplate the common human values. The created spaces also include dialogue zones that will facilitate conversation between visitors and will help them enjoy coexistence and harmony.
- ItemOpen AccessA study of the Canadian student visa application experience of Nigerian international graduate students in Canada.(2023-08-21) Olanubi, Olusewa; Wilkinson, Lori (Sociology and Criminology); Kouritzin, Sandra (Curriculum, Teaching and Learning); Edgerton, JasonThis study explores the student visa application experiences of Nigerian international graduate students at the University of Manitoba and addresses the research question: how do Nigerian international graduate students at the University of Manitoba perceive the Canadian student visa application process based on their experiences? The purpose of this research is to increase awareness of the visa application challenges and concerns of Nigerian international graduate students applying to study in Canada—with the intention of informing future policy and research. This study uses Giddens’ (1984) structuration theory to examine the effect of the bureaucratic structure (Canada’s visa system) on individual student agency, as evident in how individuals’ goals are modified to fit within the structural requirements. Critical race theory is also used to examine how racism and its various intersections affect student visa requirements and outcomes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Nigerian international graduate students at the University of Manitoba, each of whom had applied for a Canadian student visa from Nigeria using a Nigerian passport. Three sub-themes related to the bureaucratic complexity of the visa application process emerged from the interview data: “life on hold” (the process was laborious with no definite timeline regarding how long the wait for a decision would be, which resulted in life delays, stress and emotional turmoil); “social networks and social capital” (students commented on the importance of peer groups and online sources in navigating the visa process); and “discrimination” (students discussed the influence of race and other intersecting forms of discrimination on visa outcomes). Several recommendations and future research directions are also discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessA vision-based error compensation method for accurate path tracking in robotic trimming(2023-08-16) Tayaranian Marvian, Keyvan; Salimi, Elham (Electrical and Computer Engineering); Liang, Xihui (Mechanical Engineering); Khoshdarregi, MattTrimming is a common step in the fiberglass manufacturing process. During the trimming operation, outer edges and inner cutouts of molded fiberglass parts are removed to get the final part. This process is commonly performed manually by workers in many fiberglass manufacturing plants. Robotic automation of trimming processes is a challenging task due to the highly variable nature of fiberglass manufacturing. Fiberglass parts typically suffer from manufacturing inconsistencies and deformations, and rendering pre-defined offline robot programs is impractical. To enable robotic automation of trimming processes, it is necessary for robots to detect and adjust to part variation. This research develops a methodology in which a fusion of vision and laser sensors along with advanced image processing and robot control techniques are used to automatically detect and accurately follow trimming paths on fiberglass parts. A multi-stage real-time and offline error compensation framework is proposed. An external 3D camera and point cloud processing techniques are used to automatically detect trimming paths and generate target points to guide a robot. To improve the accuracy of the robot path, a 2D camera mounted on the robot is used to directly measure and correct the path deviation. A laser displacement sensor is also used to implement real-time height control, ensuring a constant distance between the onboard camera and the surface. A laser cross sensor is also utilized to measure and correct the orientation errors. Moreover, a deep learning model is developed to improve the robustness of the path detection step. In comparative experiments, variants of the U-Net architecture and backbones with different hyperparameters are compared to find the best-performing model. A U-Net model with an Xception backbone is trained to be a classifier with an AUC value of 0.99 and 96.38% accuracy on test data. The developed model is tested on a sample fiberglass part using an industrial robot. The results show that errors can be reduced to less than 0.5 millimeters and 3 degrees, which meet the required tolerance in typical fiberglass manufacturing applications.
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- ItemOpen AccessAbandoned railway rights of way : a potential recreational resource for Manitoba(1978) Gooden, Jill E.
- ItemOpen AccessAboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers’ views on language acquisition(2009-08-21T21:09:46Z) Bernacki Jonk, Luella; Pear, Joseph(Psychology), Russell, Kevin (Linguistics), Woodgate, Roberta (Nursing), Bernhardt, May (School of Audiology and Speech Sciences,University of British Columbia); Enns, Charlotte (Education)Language development is central to how children learn and participate within their environment and specific cultural milieu. There is little information available on the process of language acquisition for Aboriginal children. The purpose of this study was to investigate caregiver-child interactions regarding language development from the perspectives of Aboriginal mothers. Thirty Aboriginal mothers from the remote northern community of Lac Brochet, Manitoba, and 30 non-Aboriginal mothers from an urban area of Winnipeg were administered a 36-item survey. Discriminant statistical analysis was carried out on the data. Results indicated there were few items within the survey that assisted in the identification of cultural groups. The differences in beliefs that were noted included Aboriginal mothers’ placing a higher value on grandparents’ roles in child rearing, the influence of spirituality, positive views on “baby talk”, and the use of instructions when teaching their children. Differences were also noted in the frequency with which the two groups used language facilitation techniques, with the Aboriginal mothers reporting more frequent use overall. . The results of the surveys suggested that one group of Aboriginal mothers in a northern Manitoba Dene community may have many of the same perspectives on language facilitation as urban non-Aboriginal mothers. Thus educators and speech-language pathologists may find they can recommend some of the same Western-based practices for language facilitation with some Aboriginal caregivers. However, each community and individual family is different, therefore and thus , it remains crucial for practitioners to determine the appropriateness of the Western-based assumptions for each community and individual family.. The findings also indicated that Aboriginal mothers valued native language preservation. Clinicians providing services within Aboriginal communities must be aware of each family’s use of native languages and the presence of dual language acquisition and exposure. Dual language acquisition beganin the caregivers’ homes and should be supported throughout the school years, so that a collaborative network of language facilitation can occur.
- ItemOpen AccessAboriginal archery and European firearms on the Northern Great Plains and in the Central Subarctic : survival and adaptation, 1670-1870(2005) Bohr, RolandThe introduction of firearms and metal arrowheads has been connected to momentous changes in North American Aboriginal subsistence activities and military relations, based on an alleged superiority of European technology over indigenous distance weapons, such as the bow and arrow. This dissertation compares Aboriginal cultures on the Northwestern Great Plains (Blackfoot) and in the Central Subarctic (Swampy Cree) and their reasons for retaining indigenous technology, adopting European technology or combining the two, and the impact of these actions on their cultures and history from the early fur trade to the treaty and reservation period. In spite of their many shortcomings, muzzle-loading smoothbore firearms were of importance in altering military relations between Aboriginal peoples in both regions. However, this effect was not based simply on superiority of these weapons, but rather on the ways Aboriginal people adapted them to their own needs and employed them in combat. Due to limitations in available materials for the manufacture of bows and arrows, climate constraints and an increasing emphasis on trapping, the Swampy cree and other Subarctic peoples were more predisposed to adopt firearms. In contrast, on the Plains the increasing importance of mounted bison hunting favoured the retention of archery. Plains peoples used firearms mainly in combat, in combination with indigenous weapons. In the Subarctic firearms gradually replaced archery for big game hunting and combat, but the bow and arrow survived well into the twentieth century as a weapon to hunt small game and birds. On the Plains, in contrast, after the destruction of the bison herds both hunting and archery lost their former importance by the late 1800s.
- ItemOpen AccessAboriginal front line workers' response to Aboriginal Justice Inquiry-Child Welfare implementation : an exploration into front line workers' experiences(2005) Williams, Cybil R. A.The field of Aboriginal child and family services in Canada has evolved in a rapid fashion for the past 50 years. Front line practitioners in this high stress field respond to a quickly evolving ideology, and must develop best practice techniques in the face of enormous social problems of Aboriginal people in Canada. Manitoba is on the cusp of developing the first model of child welfare of its kind in Canada. The Aboriginal Justice Inquiry- Child Welfare Initiative is Manitoba's new child welfare legislation that recognizes the rights of Aboriginal peoples to provide child protection services to their members. Using Qualitative Analysis, and structured interviews, this researcher explores and describes the experiences and perceptions of eight Aboriginal front line workers who are employed in three southern Manitoba Aboriginal child welfare agencies in phase four of this historic implementation. Results have indicated a strong commitment to Aboriginal focused interventions that are based on historical and cultural realities of Aboriginal peoples. Researcher has highlighted themes evident in the results, and has developed a series of recommendations and conclusions.
- ItemOpen AccessAboriginal high school graduates : an investigation of contributing factors to academic achievement(1995) Anderson, Sherry.
- ItemOpen AccessAboriginal land use patterns in the boreal forest of north-central Manitoba : applications for archaeology(1999) Malasiuk, Jordyce AnneThis thesis presents a set of ethnohistoric reconstructions of Aboriginal land use patterns in the interior boreal forest of north-central Manitoba. In the boreal forest, the ways that people used the land varied seasonally. Land use could also vary for people of different cultures, and would change over time as those cultures changed. In order to highlight this variability, the seasonal rounds of the settlement and subsistence activities of both the Rock Cree and of the seasonally resident Caribou-eater Dene peoples are hypothesized for the Late Woodland Period (c. 1300 to 350 B.P.). Changes to these seasonal rounds in response to changing economic and social conditions of the European fur trade and to resulting changes in the resource base are considered in reconstructions of the Cree and Dene seasonal rounds during the Early Fur Trade Period (c. A.D. 1611 to 1820). These reconstructions have been developed based on a detailed study of ethnographic, historical and emic sources of data on both the Rock Cree and Caribou-eater Dene and culturally similar Algonquian and Athapaskan peoples in similar environments. The details on land use activities and criteria for site selection contained within these diverse sources have been reviewed, evaluated for consistency and relevance to the study region, and synthesized to produce the reconstructions of seasonal land use presented. Attention is paid to how different peoples were interacting with their environments, i.e. what activities were being located where, when and why. Thus, study of these reconstructions can help increase our ability to understand, explain and predict archaeological site distributions and the underlying systems of land use in a boreal forest environment. Suggestions are made for how this might be done through the use of predictive modelling. Minimally, these ethnohistorical analogues call attention to those types of locations that could be expected to have moderate to high potential for specific uses, but which have been traditionally under-represented in archaeological survey because of the "archaeological invisibility" of those activities and/or survey bias.
- ItemOpen AccessAboriginal peoples, the administration of justice and the autonomy agenda : an assessment of the status of criminal justice reform in Canada with reference to the Prairie region(1992) McNamara, Luke.For more than 20 years the Canadian criminal justice system has been the subject of reforms designed to address overwhelming evidence of the system's disproportionate and discriminatory impact on Aboriginal peoples. For the most part, this approach has been unsuccessful, primarily because of a failure to recognize the critical nexus between justice reform and the demand of the First Nations, Metis and Inuit peoples of Canada for constitutional recognition of their right to govern in their own communities. An examination of several recent reports of Aboriginal justice inquiries suggests that this connection is finally being made, with the consequence that community-based autonomy has emerged as the underlying principle of justice reform initiatives. Recommendations for the establishment of comprehensive Aboriginal justice systems as a component of the inherent right of Aboriginal self-government are illustrative of a dramatic and encouraging re-direction of the reform agenda. However, before this major restructuring of the Canadian justice landscape can be effected, several key issues including the role of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and the jurisdictional framework for Aboriginal justice autonomy, must be resolved. Depuis plus de 20 ans, le systeme de justice criminel canadien a ete le sujet de reformes qui ont ete concues pour aborder les impacts de la disproportionalite et de la discrimination du systeme judiciere envers les peuples autochtones. En general, cette approche a connu peu de succes du au manque de connaissance des points critiques qui lient la reforme judiciaire et les demandes des Premieres Nations, des Metis et des peuples Inuit du Canada pour la reconnaissance de leur droits constitutionnels qui leurs reservent le droit a l'auto-determination de leur communaute respective. Un examen de plusieurs recents rapports de demandes de justice autochtones suggere qu'une entente a finalement ete convenu, ayant pour consequences l'emergence de l'autonomie de la communaute comme le principe de base des nouvelles initiatives de la reforme judiciere. Les recommendations pour l'establissement complet du systeme de justice autochtones comme une composante de droits inherents des autochtones a l'auto-determination gouvernementale, demontre un changement de direction dramatique mais encourageant de la reforme a l'ordre du jour. Cependant, avant qu'une restructuration majeure de la justice canadienne soit mis en application, plusieurs problemes cles, tel la Charte des droits et libertes et l'autonomie de la structure de juridiction de la justice autochtones, devront etre resolus.
- ItemOpen AccessAboriginal sentencing and mediation initiatives : the sentencing circle and other community participation models in six aboriginal communities(1995) Green, Ross Gordon,Anglo-Canadian law has typically provided little opportunity for direct participation by victims and community members. Short of the creation of independent Aboriginal justice systems, such participation is most readily accommodated in sentencing and mediation. The imposition of an alien justice system on Canadian Aboriginal communities led to systemic inequities and its authority has been strongly resisted. Through a conjoint revision of sentencing practices by members of the judiciary and local community members, a variety of innovative sentencing practices have been implemented. This study analyzed community sentencing and mediation in Canadian Aboriginal communities and investigated six initiatives in central and northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Case law and secondary materials relating to Aboriginal justice and sentencing provided a context for these case studies. A theoretical framework based on legal pluralism and post-colonialism facilitated interpretation of study data. Sixty-six interviews were conducted with fifty-one respondents who were members of the communities studied or were lawyers, police, probation officers and judges involved with these communities. Four community participation models were identified: circle sentencing, the sentence advisory committee, the Elders' or community sentencing panel and the local mediation committee... These approaches have developed almost exclusively in rural Aboriginal communities. A combination of available local systems of social control and the communal nature of Aboriginal society has assisted in the development of these initiatives. Despite such concerns as the potential for local political interference and the role and protection of victims, the evolution of community sentencing and mediation appears to have had an empowering effect on Aboriginal communities. The continued development of such initiatives will depend upon many factors including local community and judicial suppport (both local and appellate) and accessability of treatment facilities.
- ItemRestrictedAboriginal Two-Spirit and LGBTQ mobility: meanings of home, community and belonging in a secondary analysis of qualitative interviews(2012-04-03) Passante, Lisa; Halonen, Deana (Social Work) Milliken, Eveline (Social Work) Ladner, Kiera (Political Science); Clare, Kim (Social Work) Ristock, Janice (Gender and Women's Studies)This thesis reports on a secondary analysis of individual and focus group interviews from the Aboriginal Two-Spirit and LGBTQ Migration, Mobility and Health research project (Ristock, Zoccole, and Passante, 2010; Ristock, Zoccole, & Potskin, 2011). This was a community-based qualitative research project following Indigenous and feminist methods, involving two community Advisory Committees, and adopting research principles of Ownership Control Access and Possession (OCAP) (First Nations Centre, 2007). This analysis reviews data from 50 participants in Winnipeg and Vancouver and answers: How do Aboriginal Two-Spirit and LGBTQ people describe home, community and belonging in the context of migration, multiple identities, and in a positive framework focusing on wellbeing, strengths and resilience? Findings demonstrate how participants experience marginalization in both Aboriginal and gay communities. Their words illustrate factors such as safety required to facilitate positive identities, community building, belonging, and sense of home. For participants in this study home is a place where they can bring multiple identities, a geographical place, a physical or metaphorical space (with desired tone, feeling), and a quality of relationships. Community is about places, relationships, participation, and shared interests. Belonging is relational and interactive, feeling safe, accepted, and welcome to be yourself. Detractors interfere with positive meaning making and are identified in examples of contemporary effects of historical trauma. Also included are participant recommendations for community building, descriptions of holistic wellbeing, and examples of many ways urban Aboriginal Two-Spirit and LGBTQ people are creating communities of Two-Spirit vitality and resurgence (Simpson, 2011).
- ItemOpen AccessAboriginal women : promoting self, family and community health(2005) Viel, DebbieThis study tells the stories of 16 Aboriginal women of how they promote their health, as well as the health of their families and communities. There is a focus on the definition of health using a medicine wheel depiction and the determinants of health that are currently recognized by Health Canada. Four additional determinants were identified by the women in this study and a discussion regarding each is included. This study was viewed through a feminist lens. The qualitative method used was women-centred interviewing of a convenience sample of 16 Aboriginal women residing in rural Manitoba. Content analysis of the verbatim transcripts revealed the following themes and sub-themes: health defined- lifestyle choices; physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual health; healthy self; 1 need to be me - the importance of self care - promoting my health; having faith; hopes and dreams; barriers to being healthy - shame; racism; addiction; domestic violence; abuse; teenage pregnancy; poverty; promoting health in my family - healthy family; taking care of my children; perceived social supports; and promoting health in my community, it takes a community to raise a child - healthy community; strong leadership; employment, housing, education and safety; and lack of available services. The categories are identified in Health Canada's determinants of health with the exception of: faith, social equality, healthy partner relationships and strong community leadership. Implications for nursing education and practice, policy and research are discussed. There are 10 recommendations for future consideration.