MSpace

MSpace is the University of Manitoba’s Institutional Repository. The purpose of MSpace is to acquire, preserve and provide access to the scholarly works of University faculty and students within an open access environment.

 

Recent Submissions

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Open Access
Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) while incarcerated vs Compassionate Release: a comprehensive analysis of “Dying with Dignity” within the Canadian correctional system
(2024-03-25) Ranieri, Marisa; Jochelson, Richard (Law); Woolford, Andrew
The principle of equivalence of care asserts that incarcerated individuals have access to the same level of healthcare as the general population. Carceral institutions have been notably criticized for having substantially fewer resources available and overall poor access to healthcare services. Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) is a medical process that assists eligible individuals who are seeking to end their lives. To be eligible, one must be eligible for health services funded by provincial, territorial, or federal healthcare services, be 18 years old and mentally competent for making health decisions for one’s self and have a grievous and irremediable medical condition such as a disease, illness and disability and be in an advance state of decline that cannot be reversed which has resulted in unbearable pain, and mental suffering. The right to choose how and when to end one's life falls under the purview of the right to private life. Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) states that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of a person. Article 12(1) of the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) states that the state parties to the Covenant recognize everyone's right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Article 12(2), which ensures that state parties enable citizens to exercise this right while holding each binding state accountable to have the adequate means to exercise this right to its fullest potential, and specifically Article 12(2)(d), which recognizes the need for states to create conditions for sustaining medical services and medical attention in the event of sickness for all individuals, regardless of status in society. MAiD within Canadian carceral settings, however, presents difficulties because an inmate, by definition, is an individual who is denied their fundamental human rights. Using the foundation of these fundamental human rights, this report will argue for the use of Compassionate Release for terminally/dying inmates to allow these individuals to exercise their right to die with dignity and obtain the highest standard of healthcare during their last days.
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Open Access
Taxonomic studies of western North American Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) and a problematic L. (Sphecodogastra) species complex
(2024-03-22) Hettiarachchi, Thilina; Bobiwash, Kyle (Entomology); Docker, Margaret (Biological Sciences); Gibbs, Jason
Sweat bees in the cosmopolitan genus Lasioglossum are some of the most diverse and commonly collected bees in terrestrial ecosystems. Lasioglossum is made up of several difficult to define subgenera including L. (Hemihalictus) and L. (Sphecodogastra). These two subgenera have never been completely revised in western North America. Taxonomic studies of western Lasioglossum were conducted to clarify subgeneric and species limits. A problematic species complex within L. (Sphecodogastra) was described, which created challenges for subgeneric diagnostics. An improved subgeneric diagnosis was developed for L. (Sphecodogastra) along with a revised key to Lasioglossum subgenera in North America. Then, a review of western Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) was conducted. The species delimitation process employed an integrated approach, following morphological and geographical data to delineate species boundaries. Morphometric analysis was used for species in the L. (Sphecodogastra) iridescens and L. (Hemihalictus) arizonense groups, using linear discriminant analysis and partitioning around medioids. Three new L. (Sphecodogastra) were described: L. iridescens, L. dilisena, and L. silveirai. Twenty five species of L. (Hemihalictus) were treated, five of which are described as new: L. angustoides sp. nov., L. engleri sp. nov., L. pathiranae sp. nov., L. opata sp. nov., and L. tomentosum sp. nov. Two Palaearctic species are documented in North America: L. villosulum (Kirby) and L. buccale (Pérez). The male of L. subobscurum (Cockerell) is described for the first time. Lasioglossum vanduzeei (Sandhouse & Cockerell) is resurrected from synonymy with L. arizonense. Lasioglossum aspilurum (Cockerell) is considered a senior subjective synonym of Halictus humboldtensis Michener. Six western Nearctic species in the L. nitidiusculum species-group are included in two species complexes: L. ruficorne and L. diatretum species complexes, which likely include unverified synonymies.
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Open Access
Upper vs whole body cooling during exercise with thermal protective clothing in the heat
(2024-03-28) Mansouri, Fatemeh; Villar, Rodrigo ( Kinesiology and Recreation Management); Cornish, Stephen ( Kinesiology and Recreation Management); Giesbrecht, Gordon
Introduction: Firefighters operating in hot environments face challenges from protective garments that restrict heat dissipation, resulting in increased core temperature, thermal discomfort, and performance decline. Cooling vests represent a viable solution. The study aim was to compare effectiveness of the same amount of cooling power to the upper body (UB) or whole body (WB) in alleviating thermoregulatory and physiological stress, enhancing cognitive function, and reducing ratings of thermal discomfort and exertion, during 60 min of exercise in a hot environment (40°C, 40% relative humidity) while wearing firefighter turnout gear. Methods: Eight healthy individuals (27.5±3 y) participated in three conditions with either no cooling (Control) or active cooling with a liquid perfused shirt (UB cooling), or with a liquid perfused shirt and pants (WB cooling). In each trial, participants performed three sets of 15 min of stepping (20 steps/min) and 5 min of rest. Results: Both cooling strategies were beneficial compared to having no cooling at all. Participants could only complete two exercise bouts during Control, but they completed all three bouts with active cooling. WB cooling provided an advantage over UB cooling for core and skin temperature, and thermal comfort and sensation. The advantage in minimizing the increase in core temperature was only evident during the third exercise bout. Conclusion: Active cooling is advantageous under these conditions. WB cooling provided some benefits versus UB cooling during heavy intensity exercise; however, it is uncertain whether these benefits would be observed during light-to-moderate exercise, which more likely reflects an actual firefighting scenario.
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Open Access
Experience and perceptions of climate change-related hazards, and the dynamics of technology-based adaptations in water use in Bangladesh: the case of Satkhira communities
(2024-03-25) Shehab, M. Kamruzzaman; Islam, Faisal (Natural Resources Institute); Walker, David (Environment and Geography); Haque, C. Emdad
Climate-change-induced water scarcity has become a major threat to agriculture and livelihoods in low- and middle-income countries. To address this challenge, the adoption and implementation of adaptation measures have emerged as the most effective and viable approach. Individual perception significantly influences the willingness to adopt adaptation measures, where technology-based adaptation measures can mitigate the climate change-induced effects and help to build community resilience. The current study examined the local perceptions of climate change, the factors intensifying climate-induced stress on livelihoods, and the dynamics of technology-based adaptations that affect the availability of water for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes in the coastal communities of Bangladesh. Satkhira, a coastal district of Bangladesh, was chosen as the primary research location due to its high vulnerability to climate change. Empirical data were collected in Kaliganj Upazila of Satkhira District by using two participatory rural appraisal tools: key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Additionally, quantitative data were also collected via a household survey. Findings revealed that cyclones, floods, salinity intrusion, and waterlogging were the primary climate-related hazards. Climatic factors coupled with anthropogenic activities resulted in disruptions to the freshwater supply, causing severe water scarcity for drinking and irrigation. Locals are adapting by diversifying crops and growing climate-smart crops based on their experiences and perspectives. Adopting various technologies, including shallow tube wells, deep tube wells, rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters, reverse osmosis, low-lifting pumps, and deep submersible pumps, significantly reduced climate-induced water stress. Community-based organizations, neighboring community members, and electronic media played a critical role in the diffusion of technology. Affordability was identified as the crucial factor for the ability to use such technologies. While existing adaptation approaches fail short in addressing climate-induced stresses, the study emphasizes the importance of community engagement, equitable resource distribution, community-level knowledge enhancement in policy formulation, and equitable access to technology by all socioeconomic groups to achieve the desired outcomes of adaptation in coastal communities.
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Open Access
Application of smart sensors to monitor the interactive effects of temperature and lighting on plant growth in a simulated controlled environment facility
(2024-04-05) Sun, Chenchen; Jian, Fuji (Biosystems Engineering); Erkinbaev, Chyngyz (Biosystems Engineering); Zhang, Qiang
This thesis explored the potential use of smart sensors to monitor and integrate multiple environmental factors that play crucial roles in the intricate dynamics of plant growth in response to varying environmental conditions, such as lighting and temperature in controlled environment crop production systems. A controlled environment chamber was designed and built to conduct experiments across a range of temperatures (15 - 35C) and under varying lighting duration (7, 10 and 14 h) and intensity (100 and 150 µmol/m2.s). A set of wireless smart sensors were used to monitor the environmental conditions, including air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, and carbon dioxide level. The study demonstrated that the wireless smart sensors were effective in collecting reliable data for monitoring the environmental conditions, and sensor data could be fused to optimize the environmental conditions for plant growth. From the sensor data, it was found that both fresh biomass and dry biomass were significantly influenced by the three tested environmental factors. The highest biomass accumulation was observed at moderate temperatures (25-27C), with diminished growth at both lower and higher temperatures. Light duration and intensity were found to have a noticeable effect on biomass production, with longer lighting periods and higher intensity fostering greater fresh and dry biomass production. Similar effects of environmental conditions on leaf development were found: the best environmental condition was the moderate temperatures and long lighting duration and high light intensity. However, the benefits of increased lighting were modulated by temperature, indicating a complex interplay between these factors. This study contributed valuable insights into the optimization of environmental parameters for plant cultivation in controlled environment systems through the use of smart sensors. The findings highlighted the importance of carefully balancing temperature and lighting conditions to maximize plant growth. The study demonstrated the successful use of an array of wireless smart sensors in monitoring multiple environmental parameters in controlled environment crop production and multiple sensor data could potentially be fused to optimize the environment in smart vertical farming (plant factories).
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Embargo
Old spaces, new places: legacy data and the spatial organization of Early Bronze III houses in the non-elite domestic quarter of Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel.
(2024-03-28) Richardson, Sarah J.; Fowler, Kent (Anthropology); Walker, David (Environment and Geography); Rowan, Yorke (University of Chicago); Greenfield, Haskel J.
The goal of this thesis is to contribute to a more dynamic and holistic vision of the social complexities of early urban societies in the Near East by increasing the knowledge of intra-settlement household organization and variability. This thesis approaches the household from a materials perspective, using three specialist datasets to identify the boundaries of households and their continuity between phases. To conduct the analyses proposed for this thesis, a geographic information system (GIS) that integrates all of the excavation data from over a decade of field excavation was necessary to construct. This GIS spatial database enables data to be both stored and analyzed. The digitization of the site data and their integration are also vital in the examination of legacy data as is used in this thesis. The term ‘legacy data’ refers to any data that are from an obsolete information system. In the field of archaeology, this often translates to non-digital. The digitization and analysis of such data are theoretically possible for any site and allows for reexamination of the site after years of being archived. The process provides for the creation of an electronic database (where one may not have previously existed) that allows for renewed data access and addresses storage concerns. This thesis makes a substantive contribution to the understanding of early urban society in the southern Levant by approaching the dearth of research on Early Bronze Age households from a spatial analytic perspective. Data from Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath (Israel) are used to generate models of the spatial dynamics of households in this early urban center. A clearer understanding of generational continuity of habitation of architectural units, architectural units as a representation of households, use of space within architectural units, and household (domestic) level tasks provides information that is not accessible from top-down approaches. The use of legacy data in the analysis tests the feasibility of these types of analyses on data collected before digitization was widespread. This thesis tests whether the digitization process and subsequent analysis of legacy data are valuable and return meaningful results.
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Open Access
Exploring the lived experiences of Indigenous grandmothers raising grandchildren in the Kinship Care Program of the child welfare system: digital storytelling rooted in an Indigenous research paradigm
(2024-04-08) Nicolas, Suzanne; Martin, Donna (Nursing); Bennett, Marlyn (Social Work); Gifford, Wendy (University of Ottawa); Wilson, Mary (Indigenous Elder, Spiritual Guide); West, Christina
A growing number of Indigenous grandmothers care for their grandchildren in the Indigenous Child and Family Services (CFS) Authorities in Manitoba, Canada. These grandmothers often face complex issues in addition to being economically and socially disadvantaged. This study explored the lived experiences of grandmothers raising their grandchildren within the Kinship Care Program of the Indigenous CFS Authorities. The objectives of the study were: (1) to understand the lived experiences of Indigenous grandmothers raising their grandchildren, (2) to uncover if, how, and to what extent CFS contributes to grandmothers’ health and well-being, and (3) to explore grandmothers’ perspectives on how they might want to be involved in CFS policy and practice changes and in CFS governance. The Two-Eyed Seeing conceptual model embedded in an Indigenous research paradigm, and storytelling as methodology, combined with digital storytelling as method, facilitated the authentic engagement of grandmothers. Recruitment of knowledge holders/Indigenous grandmothers was challenging, with two Indigenous grandmothers participating in the study. Both knowledge holders created a digital story and shared their digital story in a follow up semi-structured interview and in a talking circle, contributing over 80 hours to the study. Two Indigenous key informants volunteered to participate in an individual one-hour semi-structured interview, viewed the digital stories, and participated in the talking circle with 5 to 6 hours of engagement each. The prioritization of Indigenous grandmothers’ situated knowledge and the meaning-making process gave way to surprising and disturbing findings. It became apparent that there was a collective and powerful story in the unspoken stories; the omnipotent fear of the child welfare system, reliving the past and present traumas of colonization, and fear of exploitation and harm was at the forefront, as well as the ongoing disempowerment of Indigenous grandmothers. Notwithstanding, Indigenous grandmothers/participants demonstrated resiliency, empowerment, and hope as they reclaimed Indigenous womanhood. This study highlights the urgent need for the involvement of Indigenous grandmothers at the helm of CFS governance, policy, and practice changes.
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Open Access
Moderate vitamin B6 deficiency and sulfur amino acid metabolism in male and female rats
(2024-02-27) Hernandez Garcia, Frida; Blewett, Heather (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences); O, Karmin (Animal Science); House, James D.
Homocysteine, cysteine, and methionine are sulfur amino acids. Methionine converts to cysteine in the transsulfuration pathway, utilizing homocysteine as an intermediate. Research indicates that vitamin B6 deficiency may impair the regulation of cellular homocysteine concentrations and decrease cysteine synthesis. Previous studies on B6 deficiency focused solely on male rats overlooking sex-specific differences. This study aims to demonstrate that moderate vitamin B6 deficiency intake in rats affects methionine plasma levels, leading to reduced conversion into cysteine within the transsulfuration pathway compared to the adequate vitamin B6 group. Thus, moderately deficient rats are expected to exhibit decreased B6 plasma levels, with sex contributing to specific differences. Forty-six seven-week-old female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either a moderate (0.7 mg/day) or adequate (7.0 mg/day) B6 diet for five weeks. Plasma SAA, B6, estrogen, progesterone, and 1-carbon metabolites in plasma, and enzyme expression of CBS and CGL in the liver were determined. A significant diet effect was observed in 5-MTHF, GSH, choline, glycine, and cystine, with lower plasma levels in the moderate B6 diet group. Conversely, cystathionine and GSSG showed higher plasma levels in the same diet group. Furthermore, a sex effect was evident, with significantly higher plasma levels in male groups for 5-MTHF, methionine, DHFR, vitamin B12 and B2, acetylcholine, choline glutamic acid, SAM, glycine, serine, and GSSG. On the contrary, total cysteine, estrogen, and betaine were significantly higher in female groups. Finally, a sex-by-diet interaction was observed in CBS enzyme expression, with males exhibiting higher expression levels in the adequate diet group compared to the moderate deficiency group, while females showed higher expression levels in the moderate B6 deficient diet group. This study underscores the importance of including both sexes in nutrition research and emphasizes the importance of maintaining an adequate intake of B6 to support optimal functioning of the transsulfuration pathway and metabolism.
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Open Access
The impact of Sanctuary City Policies on healthcare access for immigrants in Winnipeg
(2024-03-14) Andrade, Evandro; Derejko, Nathan (Law); Khoday, Amar
This study examines the impact of Sanctuary City Policies (SCPs) on healthcare access for immigrants with precarious status in Winnipeg, focusing on undocumented immigrants, asylum-seekers, and those awaiting legal status determination. It delves into the challenges these individuals face in accessing healthcare due to legal barriers, insurance availability, and fear of deportation, intensified by their heightened health risks and inequities, especially during crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper analyzes Canada's health rights framework, including international obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, as well as Winnipeg's Newcomer Welcome and Inclusion Policy (NWIP) and different SCPs experiences both abroad and in Canada. It argues that Canada's SCPs, while aiming to protect undocumented immigrants, fall short of fully addressing the obligations outlined in international treaties, leading to disparities in healthcare access. This research integrates international human rights law, international refugee law, and public policy to propose a more inclusive and effective healthcare strategy for immigrants with precarious status, emphasizing the need for a unified approach that overcomes the legal and jurisdictional complexities of Canada's decentralized healthcare system.
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Open Access
New leaf rehab centre, salutogenic approach to rehabilitation, improving health in rehab facilities through the lens of salutogenic design
(2024-03-27) Elyasi, Sima; Roshko, Tijen (Interior Design); Macdonald, Laura (College of Dentistry); Espersen-Peters, Kurt
Dependence and addiction to substances are chronic diseases and major health issues worldwide. Prolonged substance use can cause irreversible damage to both physical and mental health and can even lead to death. Despite advancements in medical treatment for chronic disease, individuals struggling with addiction may still be at risk of relapse due to a lack of a supportive environment. This practicum examines the application of salutogenic theory in interior design, focusing on a rehabilitation centre for substance use. The salutogenic concept, rooted in Aaron Antonovsky's work, emphasizes the promotion of health and well-being rather than the mere absence of disease. In the challenging environment of substance use rehabilitation, where the journey to recovery is both physical and psychological, the significance of recovery and a supportive interior environment cannot be overstated. The study explores the fundamental principles of salutogenic design to create spaces that promote a sense of coherence for individuals receiving treatment. The purpose is to develop a framework to integrate salutogenic concepts into interior design practice. Key components of the proposed framework include the use of natural surroundings, the promotion of sensory engagement, the establishment of privacy and communal spaces, and the incorporation of therapeutic design elements. This project seeks to establish evidence-based design guidelines to enhance the healing process for substance use within rehabilitation centres through a synthesis of literature review, case studies, and site analysis.