MSpace

MSpace is the University of Manitoba’s Institutional Repository. The purpose of MSpace is to acquire, preserve and provide access to the scholarly works of University faculty and students within an open access environment.

 

Recent Submissions

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Open Access
Exhibition Review: “The Undead Archive: 100 Years of Photographing Ghosts” at the University of Manitoba Archives and Special Collections
(Library Exhibtions Review, 2024-02-28) Huot, Ashley
A review of “The Undead Archive: 100 Years of Photographing Ghosts,” a 2023-2024 library exhibit, for inclusion in ARLIS/NA’s Library Exhibitions Review Issue 2.
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Open Access
Toward equality: exploring the Dōwa education's role in overcoming Buraku discrimination in Japan
(2024-03-25) Suzuki, Yuri; Jaeger, Stephan (German and Slavic Studies); Muller, Adam
Despite the exact numbers being unknown, the Buraku people (Burakumin) are the largest minority group in Japan. Although the Burakumin are racially and ethnically Japanese, they have long endured discrimination due to their ancestral associations with “unclean” occupations during Japan’s feudal era. Discrimination against the Burakumin has profoundly impacted their lives in various ways. It has led to social exclusion, limited employment opportunities, and restricted access to housing and education. As a result, to address systematic discrimination and promote societal equality, Dōwa education was implemented in 1969. The system of Dōwa education provided support and resources to decrease the educational gap between Buraku communities and the wider Japanese society. Furthermore, as these initiatives required schools to teach about the Buraku problem, it fostered understanding and promoted equality. Currently, the Dōwa education has been considered pivotal in advocating for the rights and social integration of marginalized communities, particularly the Burakumin. However, the persistence of discrimination against the Buraku communities highlights the need for a deeper evaluation of Dōwa education initiatives in its role of eradicating discriminatory attitudes. This paper analyzes the educational value and the effect of Dōwa education implementation within schools. With the complex nature of Dōwa education and its multifaceted implementation, assessing its impact on Buraku discrimination is difficult and requires a nuanced approach that considers various factors.
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Open Access
Les modes substitutifs de résolution des différends en matière de violence à caractère sexuel ou de discrimination chez les institutions postsecondaires au Manitoba
(2024-03-23) Lebois, Joel; Kennedy, Gerard (Law); Heckman, Gerald (Federal Court of Appeal); Turnbull, Lorna
Le règlement des différends en matière de violence à caractère sexuel ou de discrimination dans les établissements postsecondaires du Manitoba, dans sa forme actuelle, ne sert pas de façon optimale les intérêts des établissements ni des membres de leur collectivité. Les processus actuels de règlement des différends, largement inspirés du système de justice pénale, ne cadrent pas avec les missions et les objectifs de ces établissements et ne tiennent pas suffisamment compte du rôle unique que jouent les établissements postsecondaires dans le tissu social manitobain. Le modèle actuel est axé sur une détermination des faits dans un processus d’enquête qui est contradictoire pour les parties – soit où les parties sont des adversaires – et n’offre aucune occasion pour l’apprentissage ou la responsabilisation. De plus, il impose un lourd fardeau à toutes les parties concernées, prenant beaucoup de temps et d’énergie émotionnelle dans un système dichotomisé « tout ou rien » qui laisse souvent au moins une partie insatisfaite du résultat. Nous émettons l’hypothèse que dans le cas de comportements qui ne sont pas à la fois des comportements criminels, un changement vers des modes substitutifs de résolution des différends, avec l’intégration de la participation obligatoire comme partie fondamentale du processus de règlement des différends atténuerait une partie ou la totalité de ces lacunes. La transition permettrait non seulement d’accroître le niveau de satisfaction des participants, mais aussi d’assurer une meilleure harmonisation avec les valeurs fondamentales et la vision des établissements postsecondaires. Les options non décisionnelles offrent le potentiel de meilleurs résultats pour les participants, et s’alignent mieux avec une vision qui cherche à éduquer de jeunes adultes qui commettent des faux pas plutôt que les punir sans présenter une occasion de croissance.
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Open Access
Contextual factors influencing physiotherapists’ clinical reasoning related to older adult clients’ finance and economics
(2024-02-26) Adedotun, Kafayat; Thille, Patty (Physical Therapy); Chesser, Stephanie (Kinesiology and Recreation Management); Engel, Lisa
Introduction: Older adults experience age-related changes, including increased incidence of chronic health conditions, that can influence their participation in activities of daily living. Physiotherapists can address many of these changes associated with aging. However, older adults’ finances can limit their participation in physiotherapy services. Yet, little is known about if physiotherapists consider older adult clients’ finances in clinical reasoning. Purpose: To examine if physiotherapists consider older adult clients’ finances in their clinical reasoning, factors influencing inclusion of finance in clinical reasoning, and how dementia might influence their clinical reasoning related to client finance. Methods: I completed a descriptive qualitative study involving nine Manitoban physiotherapists. Participants completed one-on-one, in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Seven out of nine participants were women, and seven participants had practiced for over ten years. Multiple strategies were used to strengthen trustworthiness, including triangulation of perspectives in data analysis. Results: I generated two themes by analyzing the interviews: (1) considering older adult clients’ finances in clinical reasoning depends on contextual factors internal and external to the physiotherapists, and (2) diagnosis of dementia adds another layer to contextual factors. Examples of internal factors included past client and personal experiences, perceptions of the finances of older adults as a sub-population, and perception of regulatory and ethical obligations. Examples of external factors included the clients not discussing their finances with the physiotherapists or the clients’ preference about including finance in clinical reasoning. Physiotherapists used a variety of approaches to address the needs of clients with less finances available for physiotherapy services, including modifying their care plan, emphasizing self-management strategies, and changing billing methods. Conclusion: Including clients’ finances in clinical reasoning is a complex process. There were conflicts within each participant and across participants on if and how to consider clients’ finances in their clinical reasoning. More educational or professional development related to this clinical reasoning area could help clarify some of the confusion or concerns physiotherapists have about incorporating client’s finance in clinical reasoning. Doing so could help improve client access to needed physiotherapy services to optimize older adults’ health and well-being.
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Open Access
An examination of Dietary Inflammatory Index scores in a Canadian nationally representative sample
(2024-02-09) Fleet, Kristen; Lengyel, Christina (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences); Urquia, Marcelo (Community Health Sciences); Reimer, Raylene (University of Calgary); Eck, Peter; Clara, Ian
There is growing recognition that diet can influence an individual’s inflammation level and ultimately, their risk for developing disease (Minihane et al., 2015; Prasad et al., 2012). The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess the inflammatory potential of an individual’s diet and pro-inflammatory diets have been linked to numerous chronic diseases (Phillips et al., 2019). That said, there is a paucity of research examining the inflammatory nature of diets in Canada. The current project used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey – Nutrition 2015. The study sample consisted of adults aged 18-65, who were not pregnant. 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate DII and Health Eating Index – Canada (HEI-C) scores. Adherence to food guide recommendations was assessed using Health Canada’s four-tiered, grading system. The association between DII and HEI-C scores, as well as adherence to the Canadian Food Guide recommendations were measured. The influence of personal and external factors that influence diet and DII scores was examined using a structural equation modelling approach. Results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between adherence to food guide recommendations and DII scores; however, no significant relationship was observed for HEI-C scores. Higher DII scores were noted for individuals who were not married or had lower levels of education or income. The best fitting structural equation model included variables for sex, income, number of foods consumed and length of time since immigration. The findings in this thesis indicated that certain Canadian populations have significantly higher DII scores and this knowledge could lead to the development of effective interventions to promote the consumption of an anti-inflammatory diet.
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Open Access
An evaluation of farmer-selected spring wheat genotypes from Canada's first organic participatory breeding program
(2024-03-04) Carkner, Michelle; Duncan, Robert (Plant Science); Kumar, Santosh (Plant Science); Schneider, Kimberley (Soil Science); Döring, Thomas (University of Bonn); Entz, Martin
Despite organic spring wheat’s (Triticum aestivum L.) economic and cultural importance to Canadian agriculture, breeding for organic production systems remains a challenge. Organic growing environments are different from conventional farms in terms of weed species and abundance, fertility, and soil biology. More specifically, many organic farms where most of the organic wheat in Canada is grown (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba), are deficient in soil test phosphorus (P). To address these complex challenges, the unorthodox breeding model, participatory plant breeding (PPB), has been proposed. An organic PPB wheat program has been practiced across Canada over the past decade, providing an unprecedented opportunity to explore the influence that selection environment diversity has on the agronomic performance under organic management. Field trials testing 25 PPB genotypes against 6 check cultivars across 12 environments demonstrated three PPB genotypes and one check cultivar to be top yield performers. A second experiment compared a modern cultivar and a landrace cultivar used as parental material in the PPB program, as well as the product of two farmer-selected PPB genotypes by farmers in different geographic locations from the same cross. The genotypes were tested under P limited and P-amended organic conditions, to investigate resilience against P limited conditions. There were no significant differences in yield among genotypes. Farmer genotypes were similar to the modern parent cultivar for protein concentration and lodging severity, and similar to the landrace parent in plant height and kernel mass. More detailed measurements pertinent to phosphorus use, physiology, and uptake efficiency demonstrated that two different phosphorus uptake and use efficiency mechanisms may be occurring between the farmer genotypes. Overall, this research provides evidence that early generation farmer selection is an effective breeding strategy to create distinct genotypes with phenotypic characteristics that are beneficial for organic production systems in Canada. More research is needed to determine how PPB initiatives can better serve organic production systems with a focus on specific site selection at the early generation phase in combination with parental material that may enhance pest resistance and greater phosphorus uptake efficiency. A proposed model of future PPB breeding schemes with special attention to selection environment is presented.
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Embargo
Pre-treatment and extraction techniques for improving the recovery of canolol and related phenolics in mustard and canola co-products
(2024-02-16) Fadairo, Olamide; House, James (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences); Rempel, Curtis (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences); Aluko, Rotimi (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences); Tsopmo, Apollinaire (Carleton University); Scanlon, Martin; Eskin, Michael
The objectives of the thesis were to study convective heating (air frying) for improving the extraction of phenolics from mustard and canola co-products, and to assess how micro-emulsion (ME) and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) processing techniques affect phenolics contents in canola co-products. Mustard and canola seeds were air-fried at temperature-time combinations of 160, 170, 180, or 190 °C for 5, 10, 15 or 20 min. Oil was extracted using the Soxhlet method and the de-oiled meal was air-dried at room temperature. Oil-soluble phenolics were extracted from the oil by hexane/70% methanol mixture, while meal-derived phenolics were isolated using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with 70% (v/v) methanol. Phenolics were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The antioxidant potential of both the oil and defatted meal extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal ion-chelation (MIC) assays. The extraction of major oil-soluble and meal-derived phenolics in all the mustard and canola co-products showed a temperature-time dependency. The highest canolol content in the oil was obtained after air frying the seeds at 170 and 190 °C for 15 min, for mustard and canola oil, respectively. Oil extracts from both mustard and canola showed improved antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) but poor MIC. On the other hand, canola meal extracts showed better MIC. Canola press cake (CPC) from two different sources was treated with different SC-CO2 and ME protocols to remove varying levels of oil. The partially de-oiled meals were extracted using UAE-70% (v/v) methanol. The phenolic-rich extracts were analyzed and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The results were compared with phenolic extracts from canola meal de-oiled using standard industrial hexane extraction (HE). ME was effective in sinapine removal, while SC-CO2 showed better TPC values than HE and ME. Also, ME extracts showed better MIC while SC-CO2 extracts exhibited better DPPH and FRAP values. The outcomes of the thesis will contribute to value-added processing strategies for canola and mustard to generate antioxidants and produce functional canola meal proteins with potential applications in the food and agro-allied industries.
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Embargo
The application of composting for phosphorous recovery from alum and ferric precipitated sludges
(2024-04-28) Vahedi, Saba; Chen, Ying (Biosystems Engineering); Lozecznik, Stan (Civil Engineering); Yuan, Qiuyan
In this study, the recovery of phosphorous (P) from sludge produced during phosphorous removal from secondary wastewater lagoons by using a controlled composting process was investigated. Two compost piles, one using Alum (Al) and the other Ferric (Fe) precipitated sludge, were established. Sludge was mixed with dry woodchips (1:3 ratio), manually turned weekly, and monitored for temperature, moisture, and pH, every two days. After an eight-week thermophilic phase and six-week maturity phase, compost met Category A criteria per CCME guidelines. The compost products were tested on switchgrass and canola to assess phosphorus availability, with control experiments using topsoil and Monoammonium Phosphate (MAP) fertilizer. Three cropping cycles, each lasting 50 days, were completed, and analysis of harvested biomass for total phosphorus content using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method was conducted. The analysis of the data showed that the phosphorus source with the greatest P uptake and biomass yield for switchgrass was Ferric Compost. Across different growth cycles, P uptake increased for all phosphorus sources, indicating a gradual release of P from composted chemical sludge over time through mineralization. In terms of canola, Fe compost was the most effective phosphorus source in promoting P uptake. P uptake increased steadily throughout growth cycles when cultivating canola with MAP. However, P uptake decreased with Al compost and Fe compost as growth cycles progressed. Regarding canola, among the three phosphorus sources, Al Compost resulted in the highest biomass yield for all phosphorus sources, while biomass yield decreased as growth cycles progressed. Overall, Fe compost proved most effective for P uptake and biomass yield in switchgrass, while Al compost showed better results for canola. Furthermore, the evaluation of phosphorus recovery efficiency (PRE %) underscored the fluctuating nature of phosphorus retention in both switchgrass and canola
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Open Access
Earth Sciences Graduate Symposium Program with Abstracts
(2024-04-15) Brink, Kirstin; Brueckner, Stefanie
Abstract book for the Earth Sciences Graduate Symposium
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Open Access
Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) while incarcerated vs Compassionate Release: a comprehensive analysis of “Dying with Dignity” within the Canadian correctional system
(2024-03-25) Ranieri, Marisa; Jochelson, Richard (Law); Woolford, Andrew
The principle of equivalence of care asserts that incarcerated individuals have access to the same level of healthcare as the general population. Carceral institutions have been notably criticized for having substantially fewer resources available and overall poor access to healthcare services. Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) is a medical process that assists eligible individuals who are seeking to end their lives. To be eligible, one must be eligible for health services funded by provincial, territorial, or federal healthcare services, be 18 years old and mentally competent for making health decisions for one’s self and have a grievous and irremediable medical condition such as a disease, illness and disability and be in an advance state of decline that cannot be reversed which has resulted in unbearable pain, and mental suffering. The right to choose how and when to end one's life falls under the purview of the right to private life. Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) states that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of a person. Article 12(1) of the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) states that the state parties to the Covenant recognize everyone's right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Article 12(2), which ensures that state parties enable citizens to exercise this right while holding each binding state accountable to have the adequate means to exercise this right to its fullest potential, and specifically Article 12(2)(d), which recognizes the need for states to create conditions for sustaining medical services and medical attention in the event of sickness for all individuals, regardless of status in society. MAiD within Canadian carceral settings, however, presents difficulties because an inmate, by definition, is an individual who is denied their fundamental human rights. Using the foundation of these fundamental human rights, this report will argue for the use of Compassionate Release for terminally/dying inmates to allow these individuals to exercise their right to die with dignity and obtain the highest standard of healthcare during their last days.