MSpace

MSpace is the University of Manitoba’s Institutional Repository. The purpose of MSpace is to acquire, preserve and provide access to the scholarly works of University faculty and students within an open access environment.

 

Recent Submissions

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Open Access
Records of Manitoban residential schools in Oblate archives
(2023-12-03) Anderson, Jackson; Carleton, Sean (Indigenous Studies); McCallum, Mary Jane Logan (History, University of Winnipeg); Frogner, Raymond (National Centre for Truth and Reconcilition); Bak, Greg
This thesis explores how the Roman Catholic religious congregation the Oblates of Mary Immaculate have mediated the archival records from residential schools that the congregation operated in Southern Manitoba from the late nineteenth to mid twentieth centuries. This includes questions over the broader contexts that influenced these mediations, the role of other colonial entities, such as the Canadian state and other Catholic entities, and how such mediations have shaped the composition, custody, and management of school record collections. This in turn could impact how archival users can access and use these records alongside these collections’ access policies. To examine these questions, I use a close reading of primary and secondary texts about the Oblates’ involvement in the residential school system to identify contexts relevant to the creation and management of school records. As well, I examine the form and structure of school records to observe how these contexts impacted these records’ characteristics and compare these records to the obligations mandated for the Oblates by various government and Catholic authorities as to note any discrepancies. Finally, I use a variety of sources from the archives and draw on work by archivists who have managed school record collections to show these records’ custodial histories and the various archival environments they have existed in up to the present day. This thesis argues that while the Oblates have never had absolute control over school records, their pervasive autonomy in managing school records remains key to understanding the contents, contexts, and custodies of these records over time. Given this autonomy, there is a need to to examine the Oblates’ role in shaping record collections as a distinct entity due to their autonomy in both operating residential schools and managing school records. Ultimately, by documenting Oblate contexts and mediations, archivists and researchers can develop responsive policies, practices, and research strategies that can better meet researchers’ specific interests and needs with these records.
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Open Access
Sport as a pathway to sexual health education: an exploratory study
(2023-12-04) Vlcek, Cristine; Thorpe, Jocelyn (Women's and Gender Studies); McRae, Heather (Kinesiology and Recreation Management); johnson, jay
Background: Rooted in origins of eugenics, sexual health education (SHE) originated as social hygiene to culturally maintain and mainstream Christian purity ideology through character-building spaces such as sport, recreation, and physical activity (Ferguson, 1891; Snow, 1916). Aim: This exploratory study sought to understand the ways sport acts as a pathway for sexual health education (SHE) from the perspective of high-performance student-athletes. Methods: Through semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions, nine former and current student-athletes (3 women; 6 men) were recruited to talk about their experiences and knowledge about SHE within a sports context. The analysis of the narratives involved Willig’s 6-step guide to Foucauldian Discourse Analysis (FDA). Discourses were analyzed through a biopsychosocial (BPS) approach, which recognizes the interconnectivity and holistic value of SHE as more than biomedical. Results: Three discursive themes were identified: 1) Biomedical, 2) Win At all Costs Mentality, and 3) Sexual Activity. These were supported by discourses such biological binarism, menstruation, winning at all costs, casual sexual activity, and sexual abuse, some of which aligned with SHE curricula objectives as outlined by the Manitoba and Ontario curriculum. Implications: This research may provide a new lens for sport organizations to assess their current policies which guide (student)athlete development, including mental health and equity, diversity, and inclusion for both sex and gender diverse athletes. This may also provide direction towards the creation of trauma informed prevention in lieu of crisis responses to matters related to sexual health, including sexual violence, consent, power, and sexually transmitted blood borne infections (STBBIs). Keywords: sexual health education (SHE), sport, social hygiene, eugenics, poststructuralism, Foucauldian Discourse Analysis (FDA), biopsychosocial (BPS) approach
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Open Access
Oxidized SOD1 accelerates aging by compromising the formation of mitochondrial-derived vesicles
(2023-11-30) Guo, Ying; Wang, Junfeng (Pharmacology and Therapeutics); Ghavami, Saeid (Human Anatomy and Cell Science); Marzban, Hassan (Human Anatomy and Cell Science); Zhang, Guohui (Human Anatomy and Cell Science); Taghibiglou, Changiz (University of Saskatchewan); Kong, Jiming
Aging is a complex process marked by a gradual decline in the function of multiple organelles, contributing to various age-related disorders. The specific causes and underlying mechanisms of aging remain largely unknown. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an antioxidant but is susceptible to oxidative modification. Once oxidized, SOD1 undergoes aberrant misfolding and acquires toxic properties associated with age-related disorders. The present study aims to investigate the role of oxidized SOD1 in aging. We found that the mouse motor neuron-like NSC34 cells expressing the human SOD1 (hSOD1) gene with a G93A mutation (hSOD1G93A) underwent early entrance into senescence, and the hSOD1G93A transgenic mice exhibited aging phenotypes at an early age. In addition, we discovered that the wild-type hSOD1, when oxidized, could also induce cellular senescence in neural stem cells (NSCs). A high level of oxidized SOD1 was present in both senescent NSC34 cells and mouse NSCs expressing the hSOD1 gene. Notably, the extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from senescent NSCs containing a high level of oxidized SOD1 accelerated the senescence of young NSCs and induced the death of neurons in the culture. Blocking oxidized SOD1 in EVs by an interference peptide restored the proliferation of NSCs and mitigated the toxicity of EVs to neurons. Additionally, we found mitochondria malfunctioned in both senescent NSC34 cells and mouse motor neurons of hSODG93A transgenic mice in middle age. Interestingly, mitochondria exhibited increased production of mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) during the early stages of aging; however, the responsiveness of mitochondria to mild oxidative stress gradually declined. In conclusion, our data show that oxidized SOD1 increases in senescent cells and transgenic mice with advancing age. Targeted removal of oxidized SOD1 significantly decreases biomarkers of senescence. Therefore, oxidized SOD1 is a causal factor of aging. Selective removal of oxidized SOD1 represents a promising strategy to rejuvenate senescent NSCs and decelerate aging. Meanwhile, the modulation of MDVs plays a role in early aging. Thus, the mitochondrial responsiveness to produce MDVs could serve as an indicator of premature aging.
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Open Access
Adélard Langevin, Saint-Boniface (1895-1915)
(2023-11-30) Campbell, Jacqueline; Nguyen, Phi-Van (Sciences humaines et sociales); Noël, Patrick (Sciences humaines et sociales); Morris, Paul (Études françaises, de langues et de littératures); Frenette, Yves
Pendant vingt ans, de 1895 à 1915, un archevêque catholique, Adélard Langevin, se bat pour la question des écoles, une cause qui a marqué l’histoire du Manitoba. S’il est vrai que Langevin s’est engagé activement dans ce combat, là ne fut pas son unique bataille. L’archevêque s’est aussi engagé dans une quête sortie tout droit du renouveau missionnaire qui secoue l’Europe occidentale au XIXe siècle. En plus de ses fonctions épiscopales, il va travailler, avec son clergé, à recruter des francophones catholiques. Puis, peu à peu, il va élargir son combat et se retrouver aux côtés d’Henri Bourassa. Winnipeg vit alors, en accéléré, l’arrivée de l’idéologie libérale portée par un Canada nouvellement formé, et qui poursuit son expansion vers l’Ouest. Adélard Langevin se trouve, alors, dans l’épicentre de cette transformation géopolitique, lui qui s’est juré être le gardien du dépôt, de la foi catholique et de la langue française. La recherche s’intéresse à ce choc des idéologies, libérale et missionnaire, au Manitoba. Elle met en évidence un Langevin, missionnaire oblat, loyal à son Église et à sa foi et porté par le renouveau missionnaire. En concurrence avec les autres Églises chrétiennes dans l’Ouest, l’archevêque va travailler, pendant vingt ans, à maintenir la présence franco-catholique dans l’immense archidiocèse qu’est alors celui de Saint-Boniface. Ce seront vingt années de luttes constantes. Certains historiens vont le décrire comme un archevêque têtu, ultramontain, voire pugnace. Notre compréhension du combat qu’il a livré repose sur son engagement missionnaire. Cela a fait de lui un archevêque en décalage avec les transformations géopolitiques.
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Open Access
“Why would you release fish into a body of water that can’t sustain them?” A community-based experience on the environmental health impacts of hydro dams in O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation, Manitoba
(2023-11-23) Beta, Gerald; Oakes, Jill (Environment & Geography); Neckoway, Ramona (University College of the North); McLachlan , Stephane; O'Gorman, Melanie
This project emerged as an opportunity to document Indigenous knowledge and strength-based solutions to address the environmental and health impacts of hydroelectric dam projects in the O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation. As documented in the pages that follow, Hydro dams adversely affected local food production in these communities in particular traditional hunting and trapping grounds, fisheries were devasted, water quality was impaired, and shorelines were eroded. Members of OPCN have shared stories and narratives about the ways they have experienced the health impacts of hydro dams such as diabetes, cancer, heart attacks and skin diseases that emerged when hydroelectric projects entered the OPCN territory. This thesis was a collaborative research with a hydroelectric dam-impacted community, OPCN. The research objective was to provide an opportunity for the O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation (OPCN) community members to document their hydro dam experiences. The research aimed to understand the spatial temporal implications of hydroelectric dam projects in Northern Cree communities before and after hydroelectric dam operations, and how communities experienced the changes in their environment. The research used qualitative research methods to achieve the research goals. Qualitative methods are used here as narrative-based methods and in this thesis, they were undertaken through interviews with Elders, Knowledge Keepers and Users, Fishers, Hunters and Trappers in OPCN. According to OPCN community members' experiences, the cumulative impacts of hydroelectric dams’ increased health and well-being problems. These cumulative impacts have been voiced by the OPCN community through different platforms such as social media, newspapers, conferences and recently at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) held on the 17th of April up to the 28th of April 2023 in New York, USA. The 2023 UNPFII theme was focused on “Indigenous Peoples, human health, planetary and territorial health and climate change: a rights-based approach.” (Cultural Survival, 2023). This thesis will document community experience and perspectives on the environmental health impacts of hydroelectric dams and present the impacts to non-community members, and decision-makers including governments, and it will highlight collective solutions used to address such impacts. The maps in this thesis will help communities to understand the changes brought by hydroelectric dam projects on the environment such as changes in land use and flooding. Location-based narratives presented in ArcGIS Storymaps (A web-based digital platform that integrates text, pictures, videos, audio, maps and legends to help users explore the content (Esri Documentation, n.d.)) will help non-community members understand community members' experiences. This thesis is part of a larger, Indigenous-led project, Wa Ni Ska Tan Alliance of Hydro-Impacted Communities, and Kitatipithimak Mithwayawin which are working to increase awareness of hydro impacts.