Manitoba Heritage Theses

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Contains full text Manitoba-related theses dating from 1902 to the present.

The University of Manitoba Libraries gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Manitoba Department of Heritage, Culture, Tourism and Sport in the digitization of many of these theses.

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 6323
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    Open Access
    Translanguaging and language maintenance among Arab students: immigrants and refugees
    (2024-06-04) Azzahrawi, Rawia; Dueck, Jennifer (History); Herath, Sreemali (Curriculum, Teaching & Learning); Gunderson, Lee (Language and Literacy Education, University of British Columbia); Piquemal, Nathalie
    As Canada experiences an influx of immigrants and refugees, K-12 classrooms are becoming increasingly multilingual. Providing educational materials and resources in multiple languages does not guarantee that students new to Canada will become bilingual in their native languages (L1) and Canada’s official language (L2). Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate best practices from the late 1970s and early 1980s, when using the native language in language-teaching classrooms was deemed unacceptable. This study examines English/Arabic translanguaging and language maintenance practices by Arab immigrant students and those from refugee backgrounds. Using positioning theory, this research focuses on participants’ development of positions and translingual identities, and on analyzing the distribution of rights, duties, and obligations through conversations and narratives. This research further examines how Arab students employ their linguistic abilities to acquire knowledge, enhance comprehension, and foster global identities. Using English, Arabic, and translanguaging in different contexts among immigrants and students from refugee backgrounds reveals similarities and differences influenced by their diverse experiences, cultural heritages, and social environments. These students need help communicating in their non-dominant language, and they often encounter stereotypes and misunderstandings regarding their linguistic proficiency. However, both groups recognize the immense value of bilingualism as it offers numerous advantages for personal, social, cognitive, and educational growth.
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    Open Access
    The International Joint Commission (IJC): an exploration of its fit as a binational commission
    (2024-06-24) Dion, Jay; Rounce, Andrea (Political Studies); Fergusson, James (Political Studies); Charron , Andrea
    The signing of the Boundary Waters Treaty (BWT) in 1909 between Canada and the United States established the International Joint Commission (IJC). The main responsibilities of the IJC are to evaluate projects that affect water level and flows across the borders, and to investigate transboundary issues and provide possible solutions. One of the main attributes of the IJC is that, in theory, it is binational. A binational agreement means that Canada and the United States work together on common issues rather than on separate problems along national preferences. The IJC has been studied by many scholars, however, they mainly focus on its history, functions, and activities. A weakness in the literature is the lack of attention to the commission and binational nature of IJC. It is generally assumed that the IJC is a binational commission without evaluating whether or not it meets the requirements of a binational commission. To investigate this gap in the literature, this thesis asks: is the IJC truly a binational joint commission? To assess the question, this thesis draws on existing literature to analyze the characteristics of the IJC and employs two case studies: the Zosel Dam applications and the Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) reference which provides a good test of the IJC’s commission and binational status. Ultimately, this thesis concludes that the IJC is indeed a binational commission. Given that environmental and economic uncertainties are growing in the world and even allies, American and Canadian policy analysts and decision-makers should look to the IJC’s binational mechanisms to develop mutually acceptable solutions to water border issues.
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    Open Access
    Perspectives on HIV care and support services for African, Caribbean, and Black women living with HIV in Winnipeg, Manitoba
    (2024-06-13) Njeze, Chinyere; Mignone, Javier (Community Health Sciences); Woodgate, Roberta (Nursing); Logie, Carmen (University of Toronto); Hatala, Andrew
    Abstract: Introduction: African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women in Manitoba are overrepresented in HIV infections relative to other racial groups. Yet, there are no community-based or participatory studies that have explored the stories of these women. The goal of this study was to explore how ACB women living with HIV in Winnipeg experience care and support to call attention to their lived realities, including highlighting the historical and cultural oppressions. Methods: Study participants were ACB women living with HIV (n=10) in Winnipeg, as well as healthcare staff (n=12). The qualitative research design was informed by critical race and feminist theoretical frameworks, incorporating intersectionality and constructivist grounded theory methodology for data generation, organization, and analysis. This study was also community-based and collaborated with several HIV-focused clinics in Winnipeg. The study focused on providing insight and developing a theoretical lens into the experiences of HIV care and support by HIV-positive ACB women through in-depth, semi-structured face-to-face and phone interviews. Results: Study findings revealed the specific life histories and themes of ACB women in Winnipeg, particularly highlighting trauma that informs and shapes their experiences. ACB women with HIV in Winnipeg and their care staff also expressed a lack of cultural care and support, how ACB women bear multiple loads, face language problems, experience long waiting times, and do not feel welcomed, including dealing with the cost of HIV medication. Findings show that the difficulties ACB women face involve multiple intersecting forms of oppression within social and health services and are at various levels. At the same time, ACB women commit to using HIV care, self-accepting their HIV-positive identity, connecting with religion and spirituality, and creating a stronger sense of themselves in order to live well with their condition. Implications: This study generates new knowledge and understanding of the experiences of ACB women living with HIV in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Study participants indicated a demand for consideration of the holistic needs of ACB women, which may include their cultural, linguistic, religious, and racial or ethnic characteristics. Stories from these women can inform future public health practices and interventions regarding HIV care and support in Winnipeg and across Canada.
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    Open Access
    Hazard assessment of legacy contaminated sites: bioassay-driven analysis of complex mixtures in fish
    (2024-04-30) Gasque-Belz, Laura; Palace, Vince (Environment and Geography); Jeffries, Kenneth (Biological Sciences); Denslow, Nancy (University of Florida); Hanson, Mark; Hecker, Markus
    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) of contaminated groundwater presents significant limitations due to its often-complex chemical composition and to dynamic processes affecting exposure of organisms in receiving surface waters. The overall aim of this thesis was to better inform ERA of legacy-contaminated sites where groundwater contamination could reach surface water and may impact freshwater organisms. Groundwater mixtures were collected from a pesticide packaging and handling facility in Manitoba, Canada with samples defined as reference zone (RZ), moderate industrial activity zone (MIAZ), and high industrial activity zone (HIAZ) based on historical site activities and chemical characterization of groundwater. Bioassay-driven analyses in combination with molecular assessments were used to characterize the potential ecotoxicological hazard posed by groundwater from a legacy contaminated site to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, FHM) as a model organism. To reduce live-animal testing, the potential for molecular assessments in early life stages (ELS) of FHM before independent feeding was evaluated using a novel transcriptomics tool, EcoToxChip, to predict apical responses at higher levels of biological organizations. The potential for laboratory toxicity responses to be predictive of outdoor mesocosms responses was also evaluated. RZ treatments were not toxic to FHMs relative to negative control, and therefore, served as an appropriate site-reference to which effects observed at MIAZ and HIAZ treatments were compared. Overall results revealed that oxidative stress could be the main mechanism of toxicity of contaminants present in MIAZ and HIAZ groundwater mixtures, which included pesticides, hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and degradation products. This toxic mechanism could have led to mortality, deformity, increased swimming activity, and anxiety-like behavior, genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and impaired reproductive fitness observed in FHMs in laboratory. No such responses were observed in outdoor mesocosms, hence laboratory assays overestimated effects relative to the more environmentally relevant scenario. We found that molecular responses were predictive of apical outcomes and effects observed in ELS were predictive of those observed in adult fish. Therefore, this thesis supports the use of novel transcriptomics approaches in ELS of fish as an input of mechanistic information and an alternative to live animal and field-level testing for ERAs of complex mixtures found at comparable sites.
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    Open Access
    Survey and development of a molecular test for Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) in Manitoba
    (2024-04-29) Ghavami Shirehjin, Nazanin; Zvomuya, Francis (Soil Science); Gulden, Robert (Plant Science); Tylka, Gregory (Iowa State University); Tenuta, Mario
    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines (Ichinohe 1952), recognized as a major global soybean pest, is already established in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. This study anticipated its imminent presence in Manitoba, driven by its rapid spread from U.S. counties bordering the province. The research objectives were to a) survey SCN presence in Manitoba soybean fields, b) develop a molecular method for direct soil quantification of H. glycines, and c) identify native cyst nematodes in Manitoba Prairie Preserves. The survey of 30 commercial soybean fields in Manitoba revealed four positive fields for SCN using morphological characters of cysts, PCR with species-specific primers for H. glycines (COXIII and SCAR), and DNA sequencing of four regions of the genome, marking the first report of H. glycines in Manitoba. In 2021, an additional soybean field in Manitoba showed SCN symptoms and H. glycines females on the soybean roots. A molecular test employing a SYBR Green I-based real-time qPCR assay using species-specific primers for H. glycines (COXIII and SCAR) was developed, offering a reliable, sensitive and specific means to detect and quantify H. glycines eggs directly in soil DNA extracts of Manitoba and Ontario samples. This developed method eliminates the need for labour-intensive microscopic identification and egg counting of H. glycines in soils. Soil sampling in three Prairie Preserves of Manitoba revealed that, out of the prairies sampled, only one had nematode cysts. The cysts were extracted from the rhizosphere soil of Prairie Cordgrass located in the Manitoba Tall Grass Prairie Preserve. Using morphological and molecular analysis, which involved PCR amplification and sequencing of four regions of the genome (ITS rDNA, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA; 18S rDNA, and a fragment of Mt-DNA (COI)), the recovered cyst nematodes were confirmed to be Punctodera stonei. This finding marks the first report of P. stonei in Manitoba and only the second in Canada. The findings of this study provide valuable insights into SCN presence in Manitoba, present a reliable molecular method for H. glycines quantification in soils, and unveil the presence of a cyst nematode species in a native prairie of Manitoba.