- ItemOpen AccessNutritional and environmental impacts of livestock production systems in Canada: a food systems perspective(2023-09-20) Gunte, Kebebe Ergano; McGeough, Emma (Animal Science); Wittenberg, Karin (Animal Science); Aukema, Harold (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences); McAllister, Tim (Animal Science); McKinnon, John (University of Saskatchewan); Ominski, Kim; White, RobinMeeting the challenge of providing a consistent supply of nutritious food for a growing global population is a significant issue facing humanity in the 21st century. Animal-sourced foods (ASF) play a vital role in global food security and nutrition, but their production is often criticized for its high resource demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study examined the relationship between animal production and the environmental and nutritional impacts of land use and dietary choices in Canada. Data regarding animal feed demand and land base requirements, nutrient composition, prices and GHG emissions of crop and animal-based products, human nutritional requirements, and socio-demographic factors affecting food choices were collected from various sources, including Statistics Canada, USDA, industry reports, and published literature. The research employed a combination of mixed research methods, such as multilevel mixed-effects probit regression, inverse probability weighted with regression adjustment, mathematical diet optimization techniques, and spreadsheet models for data analysis. The analysis demonstrated that Canada's total annual dry matter (DM) feed demand in 2016 was approximately 63.9 million t, requiring approximately 17.9 million ha of land. Diet optimization indicated that nutrient intake requirements of Canadian population could generally be met from the domestic food supply, except for certain fatty acids and vitamins. Omnivore, lacto-ovo, and lacto-vegetarian diets required more food to meet Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) requirements and produced more GHG emissions than vegan diets. However, completely removing animals from Canadian farming systems and transitioning to vegan diets led to increased diet costs. Based on our analysis, the exclusion of red meat from diets resulted in statistically significant differences in the intake of 14 -17 nutrients, depending on the analytical approach used. Further, the risk of calcium, energy, potassium, and vitamin D inadequacy was higher for people who did not consume red meat, while potential inadequacy for magnesium, fiber, and vitamin A was lower for those that did. Sex, education, family status, and cultural background are important determinants of dietary choice among Canadians. These findings can help scientists, policymakers, farmers, and other stakeholders make informed decisions about how to achieve food security and sustainability in a changing world.
- ItemOpen AccessLocal level flood management, risk reduction, and coping and adapting in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, Canada(2023-09-17) Zaman, Jobaed Ragib; Walker, David (Environment and Geography); Islam, Faisal (Natural Resources Institute); Haque, C. EmdadThe purpose of this research was to study the pattern of flood preparedness, response and recovery, and the drivers of changes in flood management, i.e., coping and adapting, in the Red River Valley of Manitoba, Canada. I conducted my research following a case study approach with a qualitative research design. My study included the communities of St. Adolphe and Ste. Agathe in the Rural Municipality (RM) of Ritchot in Southern Manitoba. Techniques and instruments that were applied for data collection included Key Informant Interviews (8), Oral History Interviews (7), and Document Review. The findings of the research revealed that local community-level flood preparedness, response, and recovery in the Province of Manitoba are primarily designed, governed, managed, and evaluated by Provincial government authorities using a top-down approach. Given that Canada has a long history of bailing out disaster victims, and as the approach has been generally non-participatory, community members show reluctance in taking precautionary measures, resulting in undesired losses and damages. The findings of my research also identified the major drivers of coping and adaptation measures for building flood resilience within the communities, which included: functioning partnerships among stakeholders, strong institutional structures that facilitate interactive learning, knowledge co-production, resource sharing, communication and information sharing, and infrastructure supports. However, there were only a few efforts to develop an institutional atmosphere conducive to spontaneous network development, yielding diverse coping and adaption strategies at the community level in the Province of Manitoba.
- ItemOpen AccessMining impact and Indigenous protected and conserved areas(2023-09-14) Onyeneke, Chima; Oakes, Jill (Environment & Geography); Cooper, Sarah (City Planning); Thompson, ShirleyGold mining on pristine land that Indigenous people use for sustenance is a common practice in Canada, despite some of these lands being designated as Indigenous-protected areas. This study explores traditional land use protection versus natural resource extraction, looking at the Red Sucker Lake First Nation (RSLFN) region. I applied geographic information system mapping, analysis of transcribed audio interviews, and literature review methods in this study. Based on 21 map biographies of traditional land use of RSLFN interviewees’ transcripts focused on the preservation of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), mining impacts, and traditional land use and occupancy (TLUO) of these 21 RSLFN people. Summary maps of the traditional land uses of 21 RSLFN people show sustenance and cultural activities on greenstone belts, designated by the province for mining. The interview analysis reveals exploration and mining activities impacting RSLFN’s traditional land and practices, causing spills and destroying personal property. The interviews also reveal community members’ desire to protect their land from mining activities for Indigenous knowledge preservation, ecosystem preservation, and traditional land use protection towards realizing Mino Bimaadiziwin (the good life). A change in governments’ policies on greenstone belts being restricted to mining development, which interferes with the traditional land use practices of affected Indigenous peoples, is needed.
- ItemOpen AccessElucidating mechanisms of sulfamethoxazole sorption onto bentonite in the presence of fresh liquid swine manure dissolved organic carbon(2023-09-11) Hansima, Charitha; Zvomuya, Francis (Soil Science); Farenhorst, Annemieke (Soil Science); Indraratne, Srimathie (University of Winnipeg); Amarakoon, InokaThe extensive use of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as a veterinary antimicrobial in the Canadian swine industry increases its occurrence in manure. Land application of swine manure enhances the dispersal of SMX in the environment, increasing the risk of antibiotic resistance development in bacteria, one of the focal human health emergencies of our times. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (HA) from the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction in fresh liquid swine manure influence the sorption of SMX onto smectite clays, hence the environmental fate. This research aimed to elucidate the effect of fresh liquid swine manure DOC species in fresh liquid swine manure on SMX sorption onto bentonite. Specific objectives were to (i) elucidate the physicochemical characteristics of HA and FA isolated from fresh liquid swine manure DOC and (ii) assess their contribution to the mechanisms controlling SMX sorption onto bentonite clay. Humic substances were extracted and characterized for their physicochemical properties. A batch sorption study with a randomized complete block design was used to quantify the SMX sorption, explicit clay-mineral surface and interlayer sorption, and probe fluorescence quenching in humic substances by SMX. Results showed that FA was the dominant component of DOC in the fresh liquid swine manure examined in this study (10 FA: 1 HA). Thus, FA determined the major portion of organic matter coating on the mineral bentonite and binding of SMX. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that hydrophobicity (53.0% HA, 56.5% FA), hydrophilicity (34.0% HA, 35.1% FA), aromaticity (34.0% HA, 37.2% FA), and aliphaticity (66.0% HA, 62.7% FA) of the two humic substances were similar despite the differences in their functional groups. Solid state 13C-NMR data and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic data revealed that the core and the surface of HA and FA secondary structures were substantially different. The orientation of functional groups in clay mineral-bound HA and FA and free aqueous HA and FA determined SMX sorption mechanisms. The abundance of surface-oriented phenolic functional groups in mineral-bound and free FA resulted in fluorophore quencher π-π electron-donor-acceptor interactions, cation and water bridging, and H-bonding. In contrast, the relatively high surface amide groups in HA structures allowed non-fluorophore quencher H-bonding, cation, and water-bridging mechanisms with SMX. Sorption data suggested the formation of extractable aqueous FA-SMX residues, whereas SMX complexed to aqueous HA is non-extractable. Spectroscopic data revealed a comparatively higher amount of -COOH functional groups in FA colloids, which made FA-SMX unstable and susceptible to breakdown in aqueous environments. SMX complexed with aqueous FA can be transported in rain and snowmelt runoff and leach into aquatic environments and subsequently desorbed. We suggest the storage of fresh liquid swine manure under aerobic conditions in open lagoons to oxidize FA functional groups or composting of the manure to hinder SMX sorption to FA before land application. Further, the transformation of FA to HA through humification under long-term storage may also contribute to reducing the sorption of SMX onto FA.
- ItemEmbargoThe effects of subsurface drainage design and water management system on soil desalination in the Canadian Prairies.(2023-09-20) Sampson Kwadwo, Boateng; Ferguson, Ian (Earth Sciences); Cordeiro, Marcos (Animal Science); Sri Ranjan, RamanathanThe use of electromagnetic induction to map and monitor the salinity levels of soil and other soil properties such water content has been an important tool of modern agriculture for decades. The present study used an electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor (i.e EM-38 meter) to conduct surveys at two locations in Manitoba in order to assess the salinity levels and distribution of the soils in these locations. These study sites are Prairies East Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (PESAI) at Arborg, and a research farm Hespler commercial farms in Winkler Southern Manitoba, Canada. At PESAI, the study investigated the impact of drain spacing on the salinity levels of heavy clay soil. At the Winkler site, we investigated the impact on soil salinity of four water management system designs which include irrigation and drainage. At the PESAI research site, drain tiles were installed at a depth of 0.9 m to 1.1 m in the north north-south direction with drain spacing from 15 ft (4.57m), 30 ft (9.14m) and 45 ft (13.72m). The control plot had no drain tiles installed. Similarly, at the Winkler research site, the research area was divided into four water management systems in order to characterize better the effects of these water management systems on the salinity of the soil. These water management systems included no drainage with no irrigation (NDNI), free drainage with overhead irrigation (FDIR), controlled drainage with subirrigation (CDSI), and no drainage with overhead irrigation (NDIR). The irrigation and drainage on these plots started in 2009 and irrigation was stopped in 2013. A total of 2648 ECa data were surveyed from Arborg whereas Winkler had total ECa 11,715. A total of 165 soil samples were taken from 33 separate locations in the two study sites and were taken to the laboratory for further soil analysis. The apparent electrical (ECa) data from the Arborg study was corrected for departure from low induction number (LIN) response. No LIN correction was required for Winkler ECa data because the ECa values were low. The ECa result from both sites showed variations that did not correspond to the individual treatments. Careful examination of both ECa results indicated a large-scale, irregularly-shaped conductive and resistive region that crossed the boundaries of individual treatments. In both studies, the EC of the saturated paste extract (ECe) from all the 165 soil samples were depth weighted using horizontal mode (H-H) and vertical mode (V-V). There was a high correlation between ECa and ECe. Both studies yielded a high Pearson r2 correlation coefficient with Arborg exceeding 0.82 for H-H and 0.74 for V-V, while Winkler H-H was 0.84 and 0.62 for V-V. Although the volumetric water content (VWC) was relatively uniform at both study sites, there was also a weak correlation between VWC and ECa. The laboratory measured ECe is important as it is used to convert ECa from the field to ECe. It was observed that the Arborg calibration equation had a large positive intercept for both H-H and V-V mode. This indicated undissolved ECe source which was gypsum. High clay content of the study area and gypsum rich soil could be the main controlling factors acting on the ECe of the soil. To establish the effects of treatments, one way ANOVA design was applied to H-H and V-V ECe data in Arborg. The results revealed that the control drainage was least conductive compared to the other treatments. ANOVA result for Winkler study site revealed a trend of decreasing salinity in the plotset with time for plotset with irrigation and drainage. There was evidence of a decreasing salinity when mean of the plotset were ranked within May and June 2021. Within the year 2021, CDSI and FDIR were least conductive when compared with NDIR and NDNI. Similarly, in 2009, NDIR and NDNI were least conductive compared with CDSI and FDIR. The result from the Winkler study area showed that the drains tiles were effective in reducing salinity of the soil.