Extraction efficiency, quality and characterization of Typha latifolia L. fibres for textile applications

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Chakma, Koushik
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The textile uses of the aquatic plant ‘Typha latifolia L.’ (genus Typha) have not been previously explored. The current research is the first of its kind to examine the extraction, quality and properties of this waste biomass fibre and compare them with the two most widely used fibres: cotton and polyester, wool. It was found that Typha leaves and the core spongy tissue could be transformed into fibres under controlled experimental conditions in aqueous alkaline solution giving a yield range of 15% to 60%. The diameter of the Typha fibre is much higher than the Cotton and wool while the moisture regain (%) and thermal resistance are comparable to these two fibres. SEM revealed a unique submicroscopic ‘crenelated’ structure and FTIR spectrum showed the cellulose rich content in the Typha fibre. The cellulose content helped Typha fibre absorb the reactive dyes and the dye exhaustion is similar or better than the cotton. However, the stiffness of the Typha fibre is higher than the cotton and polyester, which would make Typha fibre difficult to process in the Cotton spinning systems.
Typha, Fibre yield (%), Alkaline treatment, Textile properties, Combustion behavior, Crenelated structure