Effect of Lygus bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) on field beans in Manitoba
Cambridge University Press
Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), L. elisus (Van Duzee), L. borealis (Knight) and Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) were the major species of plant bugs present in commercial field bean and soybean fields in 2008–2010. Lygus lineolaris comprised 78–95% of the mirid adults and <10% were A. lineolatus. Lygus lineolaris reproduced in field beans and completed a single generation. In field beans, adults entered the crop in late July, corresponding to growth stages from late vegetative to pod initiation, and females laid eggs in the crop. Nymphs hatched and developed and were most numerous at the seed development and seed filling stage. At seed maturity, late instar nymphs and adults were present. In soybeans, L. lineolaris reproduced but nymphs had poorer survival than in field beans. Late in the season, adult numbers greatly increased in field beans and soybeans, partly due to immigration of adult Lygus bugs from early‐maturing crops. Field beans and soybeans appeared to be a transient host for A. lineolatus. There were no effects on yield quality or quantity associated with the numbers of plant bugs seen in field surveys. In laboratory and field cages, the type of injury from L. lineolaris feeding differed among plant growth stages but not between nymphs and adults, although nymphs generally were more injurious. At flowering to pod initiation, abortion of buds, flowers or pods was the most common response to feeding injury; pod abortion did not occur when injury occurred at later growth stages. Sometimes abortions resulted in reduced yield quantity, but sometimes plants compensated for the injury. No loss of seed quality occurred from feeding at this stage. During seed development and filling, feeding injury most frequently affected the vascular supply to filling seeds, resulting in shriveled seeds and pods at harvest, and consequent reduced total harvested seed weight. At seed maturity, direct seed injury, involving penetration of the testa and loss of cotyledon tissue, was the most frequent injury and resulted in pits in the seed coat at harvest. There was no loss in yield quantity when feeding occurred at seed maturity, but seed pitting reduced yield quality.
Lygus bugs,plant bugs, field beans, soybeans, Manitoba,injury, yield quality and quantity, Canada