Effects of lifestyle intervention on dietary intake, physical activity level, and gestational weight gain in pregnant women with different pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index in a randomized control trial

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Hui, Amy L
Back, Lisa
Ludwig, Sora
Gardiner, Phillip
Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf
Dean, Heather J
Sellers, Elisabeth
McGavock, Jonathan
Morris, Margaret
Jiang, Depeng
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Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain in pregnant women with normal and above normal body mass index (BMI) in a randomized controlled trial. Methods A total of 116 pregnant women (<20 weeks of pregnancy) without diabetes were enrolled and 113 pregnant women completed the program. Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received weekly trainer-led group exercise sessions, instructed home exercise for 3-5-times/week during 20-36 weeks of gestation, and dietary counseling twice during pregnancy. Participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. All participants completed a physical activity questionnaire and a 3-day food record at enrolment and 2 months after enrolment. Results The participants in the intervention group with normal pre-pregnancy BMI (≤24.9 kg/M2, n = 30) had lower gestational weight gain (GWG), offspring birth weight and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy weight gain compared to the control group (n = 27, p < 0.05). Those weight related-changes were not detected between the intervention (n = 27) and control group (n = 29) in the above normal pre-pregnancy BMI participants. Intervention reduced total calorie, total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake were detected in women with normal or above normal pre-pregnancy BMI compared to the control group (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Increased physical activity and reduced carbohydrate intake were detected in women with normal (p < 0.05), but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI at 2 months after the onset of the intervention compared to the control group. Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrated that the lifestyle intervention program decreased EGWG, GWG, offspring birth weight in pregnant women with normal, but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI, which was associated with increased physical activity and decreased carbohydrate intake. Trial registration NCT00486629
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2014 Sep 24;14(1):331