- ItemOpen AccessEffectiveness of tutorials for promoting educational integrity: a synthesis paper(2018-09-12) Stoesz, Brenda M; Yudintseva, AnastassiyaAbstract The prevalence of plagiarism, cheating, and other acts of academic dishonesty may be as high as 80% in populations of high school and post-secondary students. Various educational interventions have been developed and implemented in an effort to educate students about academic integrity and to prevent academic misconduct. We reviewed the peer-reviewed research literature describing face-to-face workshops, e-learning tutorials, or blended approaches for promoting academic integrity and the effectiveness of these approaches. In general, the educational interventions were described as effective in terms of satisfaction with the intervention, and changes in students’ attitudes and knowledge of academic integrity. Few studies provided evidence that the educational interventions changed student behaviour or outcomes outside the context of the intervention. Future research should explore how participation in educational interventions to promote academic integrity are linked to long-term student outcomes, such as graduate school admission, alumni career success, service to society, and personal stability.
- ItemOpen AccessA Theoretical Overview of the Reading Process: Factors Which Influence Performance and Implications for Instruction(National Adult Literacy Database, 1996) Zakaluk, Beverley L.Of universal concern to early years teachers is ensuring that their students become fluent readers. When children are learning to read they often sound out words letter by letter, make innumerable hesitations, add words not on the page, omit words altogether, or are overly dependent upon pictures as an aid to word recognition. Readers may mispronounce words and stop both to repeat words or to go back and self-correct, all in efforts to make sense of or comprehend the text. For numerous students, oral reading is laboured with both improper phrasing and repetition. Punctuation may be ignored altogether. Some pupils may even exhibit reluctance to read aloud orally, while others are overwhelmed by the task of reading a whole page of text silently. For many, learning to read is thus an extremely difficult task, to which this lack of fluency attests. Our contention is that the reading difficulties described above are indicative of normal reading development and distinguish beginning readers from readers who are more fluent and skilled. Reading is an involved and complex process and many factors interact to inhibit and prevent reading success. It is, however, through increased understanding not only of the factors that influence reading development but also what is involved in the process of reading that the reading behaviours noted in the foregoing are placed in proper perspective. This monograph therefore discusses both the difficulties faced by beginning readers as they acquire fluency and the complexity of the reading task. Discussion begins with an overview of past and prevailing models of the reading process and the introduction of an interactive model of reading. Subsequently, within the framework of the interactive model, factors which influence and affect reading acquisition including the orthographical, lexical and syntactical demands of text in relation to either the cultural experiences or semantic knowledge of students will be discussed, together with implications for reading instruction.
- ItemOpen AccessAlcohol and Substance Use in the Jewish Community: A Pilot Study(2015-6-16) Baruch, Melanie; Benarroch, Abraham; Rockman, Gary E.Awareness of addictions in the Jewish community is becoming increasingly prevalent, and yet, a gap exists in the literature regarding addictions in this community. Knowledge about the prevalence of addictions within Jewish communities is limited; some believe that Jews cannot be affected by addictions. To address this gap, a pilot study was conducted to gather preliminary evidence relating to addictions and substance use in the Jewish community. Results indicate that a significant portion of the Jewish community knows someone affected by an addiction and that over 20% have a family history of addiction. Future research needs are discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessMy Brother's Teacher? Siblings and Literacy Development in the Home(2011-2-27) Sokal, Laura; Piotrowski, CarolineFrequency of sibling literacy interactions were examined in 134 families with at least two children, where at least one of the children attended school in grade one to grade four. Parents in the majority of families reported that their children read together on a regular basis without a parent present. This held across various demographic constellations including gender of the older child. However, children from families with three or more children were less likely to read with their siblings. Implications for parents and teachers are discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessMetaphors and social science(1999-1-1) Macpherson, Eric D.The social sciences have a considerable history of attempts to apply models and theories from the physical sciences. All such attempts have failed, primarily because social scientists have commonly not distinguished between applications and possibly useful metaphors.Attempts to apply non-linear mathematics to social concerns will similarly fail. There are now no non-trivial applications, and there are unlikely ever to be.But the phenomenon of reifying models and theories from elsewhere has long standing status in the social sciences, and DDNS can play an important role in monitoring those attempts.