Seasonal movements, home range utilization, and denning habits of black bears (Ursus americanus) in Western Manitoba

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Klenner, Walter Edward.
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The North American black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) ranges over much of the continent from central Mexico north to the treeline in Alaska and Canada (Banfield 1974). The species is omnivorous (Bray and Barnes 1967, Hatler 1972, Beeman and Pelton 1980) and occurs in a wide variety of habitats ranging from temperate deciduous-coniferous forest associations to the tundra regions of northern Canada (Harlow 1961, Jonkel and Miller 1970, Jonkel and Cowan 1971, Kelleyhouse 1980). Unlike the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) whose populations have been decimated or extirpated in many areas (Cowan 1972, Craighead 1979, Craighead 1980), the black bear has not suffered the same fate and retains an extensive range in North America (Cowan 1972, Burk 1979, Herrero 1979). Because of its overall abundance, depredation problems in both agricultural and forested areas (Poelker and Hartwe11 1973, Gunson 1979, Jorgenson 1979) and at park campsites (Merrill 1978, Singer and Power-Bratton 1980) have given impetus to management programs. In addition, the reduction of once widespread populations to remnants within refuges by human encroachment and hunting pressure (Lindzey et al. 1976, Pelton and Burkhardt 1976) has emphasized the need for more complete information on black bear ecology...