Glomerulomegaly as an early marker of obesity-related glomerulopathy in the diet-induced obese experimental model and use of alpha-linolenic acid rich dietary oils for the treatment of disease and alteration of oxylipin profiles
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Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) is an emerging epidemic for which an established model, diagnostic guidelines, and dietary treatments are absent. Oxylipins influence inflammation and hemodynamics, yet the renal oxylipin profile or the influence of dietary linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on their formation has yet to be examined. Therefore, obese-prone rats were provided high fat lard/soy diets to induce obesity and subsequently divided among 7 diets with varying LA and ALA levels. The diet-induced obese experimental model developed characteristics of ORG; morphology and histology revealed glomerulomegaly as an early diagnostic marker as it was the first pathological change and indicated further renal damage. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 30 oxylipins. Higher dietary ALA resulted in greater n-3 oxylipin levels and resulted in reduced progression of glomerulomegaly and glomerular damage. To conclude, ORG may be diagnosed earlier with glomerulomegaly and treated with dietary oils rich in ALA which alter the oxylipin profile.