India and Pakistan's nuclear relationship: establishing a stable nuclear deterrent and prospects for peace
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This thesis explores the adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan which is rooted in historical animosities that resulted from the end of the British Raj in 1946. This relationship is further exacerbated by the fact that both countries have conducted nuclear tests. An examination of the development of India and Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program, specifically their nuclear doctrines and nuclear capabilities, is provided to determine the nature of their technical nuclear posture. A policy of sufficient deterrence is explained and adopted to keep the level of nuclear arsenals at a number adequate to deter successfully an adversary from initiating a nuclear attack, to reduce the potential for an arms race. A comparable nuclear capability is revealed, even though strategic asymmetry creates a larger Indian nuclear force. Finally, confidence-building measures taken by India and Pakistan in the direction of a more prospective peaceful nuclear relationship are highlighted.