The correlation between color and oxidation status in high oleic deep-frying oils: impact of antioxidants
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Frying oil is a heat and mass transfer medium, which affects the quality of food. The reaction mechanisms in deep-frying oils are mainly thermal oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization, which result in lipid deterioration. Addition of synthetic or natural antioxidants can effectively slow down lipid deterioration during deep-frying. Total polar components, polymerized triglycerides, p-anisidine value, acid value and iodine value are reliable indicators for assessing oil degradation during frying. Color darkening of deep-frying oils is one of apparent changes during deep-frying and is closely associated with the levels of decomposition compounds in the frying oils. However, the evidence of the relationship between color and deep-frying oil quality indicators are scanty. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a model for rapid assessment of oil quality during 30-hour deep-frying processes using oil color and quality as indicators. Significant color changes (p < 0.05) were observed in soybean oil as compared to canola and sunflower oil during 30-hour deep-frying trials. Canolol-enriched frying oils showed the highest color values before deep-frying, but the final results showed the least color changes (p < 0.05) during the 30-hour deep-frying trials. The highest percentage of total polar components (15.55 %), polymeric triglycerides (9.3 %), and p-Anisidine value (62.34) were found in TBHQ-enriched deep-frying oil samples in soybean oil. The highest acid value (3.06 mg KOH/100g) was found in canolol-enriched frying oil samples in canola oil. Rosemary and canolol-enriched deep-frying oil samples showed significant effect (p < 0.05) on color changes while reducing formation of total polar components, polymeric triglycerides, and aldehydes during the 30-hour deep-frying study. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between color and oil quality indicators in all of the deep-frying oil samples; significant regression (p < 0.05) models are expressing the level of oil deterioration from color (light-dark, red-green, yellow-blue) in deep-frying oils. Overall, this study established several models using color as an indicator aiming to rapidly assess deep-frying oil quality.