Evaluation of Brassica fibre for textile and spinning properties

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Date
2016
Authors
Khan, Md Rabiul Islam
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Abstract
Brassica napus L., which is commonly known as canola, is the largest sources of edible oil in Canada. The remaining plant material, such as the stem, remains unused for any immediate application and is returned to the soil for decomposition. An investigation has been conducted to extract, characterize and modify the fibre materials from B. napus stems for textile and apparel applications. In order to find the optimum retting conditions for retting time, four different retting parameters were evaluated including, retting temperature, material liquor ratio, water exchange and the reuse of retted water. It was discovered that the virgin-retted fibres from Brassica plants exhibit most of the required textile properties including dye absorbency, strength, and thermal behaviour. However, the virgin-retted fibres do not exhibit the required spinning (yarn transformation) properties (softness, flexibility and individual fibre entity). In order to modify the Brassica fibres for spinnability, three treatment methods were applied: 1) alkali, acid and softener treatment; 2) pectinase enzyme treatment; and 3) enhanced enzyme treatment. According to Method 5 of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC), Brassica fibers obtained from treatments 2 and 3 showed similar spinning properties, and demonstrated superior spinning properties to Brassica fibres obtained from treatment one. To determine the variability of the cultivars upon textile and spinning properties, seeds from twenty different Brassica cultivars consisting of three different species, B. napus, B. juncea L. and B. rapa L., were collected, planted, and harvested upon reaching physiological maturity. The virgin water-retted fibre samples were then treated with pectinase enzyme, and different spinning properties (stiffness, softness, individual fibre entity) and textile properties (fibre decomposition temperature, tenacity and dye absorbency) of enzyme-treated samples were evaluated. The current research suggests that producing fibers from canola stubble and stems could be an additional income source for canola growers.
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Brassica napus, fibre, spinning properties, textile properties
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