Storage properties of high oil content bulk canola and their effects on canola storage

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Sun, Ke
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Bulk density, angles of repose and coefficients of friction against four structural surfaces of two varieties of high oil content canola (Invigor 5440; oil content 47.1% ± 0.27%; and Nex4 105; oil content 45.4% ± 0.35%) and mixtures of them (with ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) at four moisture contents (8%, 10%, 12% and 14%, wet basis) were determined. The same physical properties of one high oil content canola (45H29; oil content 45.4% ± 0.12%) and one low oil content canola (5525 Clearfield; oil content 42.4% ± 0.07%) at three moisture contents (8%, 10% and 12%) were determined. The coefficient of friction was measured against four structural surfaces: galvanized steel, plywood, and wood-floated and steel-trowelled concrete. Seed major and minor axes (dimension) of 45H29 canola at moisture contents of 8%, 10% and 12%, and Nex4 105, Invigor 5440 and 5525 Clearfield canola at 10% moisture content were measured. Major and minor axes of 45H29 increased with increases in moisture content. The oil content did not affect axes of canola seeds. Bulk densities were significantly different between Invigor 5440 and Nex4 105 canola. Bulk densities of mixtures of Invigor 5440 and Nex4 105 were higher than that of Nex4 105 and lower than that of Invigor 5440. Bulk density decreased with an increase in oil content. Angles of repose depended more on canola types and surface properties than oil content. Coefficient of friction against structural surfaces was not significantly affected by moisture content but was affected by oil content. Bins used to store low oil content canola could be used to store high oil content canola. Temperature and moisture content of stored crops affect safe storage time. The three high oil content canola varieties (45H29, Invigor 5440 and Nex4 105) and one low oil content canola variety (5525 Clearfield) with 8%, 10%, 12% and 14% initial moisture contents (wet basis) were stored at 10ºC, 20ºC, 30ºC and 40ºC for 20 wk. Moisture content, germination, fatty acid value (FAV) and visible and invisible mould of the canola seeds were determined every 2 or 4 wk. Increase of moisture content and temperature increased germination loss and mould infection. Fatty acid values of canola seeds at 10ºC, 20ºC and 30ºC increased with an increase of storage time; but at 40ºC, it increased at the beginning of storage, and then dramatically decreased. Storage fungi (Penicillium spp., Aspergillus glaucus group and Aspergillus candidus Link) were predominant throughout the study. Invisible mould and FAV were not suitable for predicting safe storage time of canola. Based on the 20% loss of initial germination, safe storage guidelines of high oil content canola were developed. To safely store high oil content canola, its moisture content should be lower than that of low oil content canola. The variety (Nex4 105) with 10% initial moisture content was stored in three large bins (2.74 m diameter; 5.03 m high) at simulated Western Canadian storage conditions (from September to December in the year 2010), to verify the developed safe storage guidelines of high oil content canola. The developed safe storage guidelines worked well in the real situation, except that hot spots in the grain bulk might cause dramatic increase of moisture content and temperature that can accelerate canola deterioration.
high oil, canola