The effect of essential oils on lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells

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Lokuge, Gayani M.S.
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Maintaining gut health is important in animal growth and production. Gastrointestinal infection can lead to oxidative stress in the gut and impair animal growth. Oxidative stress is a detrimental process associated with reduced nutrient absorption and growth performance. Essential oils have received attention as a potential antibiotic alternative to control infection in animals. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin produced by gram-negative bacteria that can induce oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of essential oils (citral, and cinnamaldehyde) on LPS-induced oxidative stress in an intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2 cells). LPS caused a significant increase in oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA, end product of lipid peroxidation) and a reduction of endogenous antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Such an effect was time and dose dependent. Preincubation of cells with citral (25 μM), cinnamaldehyde (12.5 μM) or combination of both compounds attenuated LPS-induced lipid peroxidation and restored SOD and GSH levels. These results suggest that citral and cinnamaldehyde have a protective effect against LPS-induced oxidative stress through down-regulation of lipid peroxidation and improvement of the endogenous antioxidant system. Essential oils supplementation in feed may exert a beneficial effect against oxidative stress-induced gut injury in animals during infection.
Citral, Cinnamaldehyde, Lipopolysaccharide, Oxidative stress, Caco-2 cells