The effect of pre-press solvent extraction conditions on the chemical composition and nutritive value of canola meal for broiler chickens and pigs

Thumbnail Image
2017, 2017, 2016
Adewole, Deborah
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Journal of Animal Science
Poultry Science
Animal Feed Science and Technology
Canola meal (CM) which is commonly used in poultry and swine diets as an economically viable alternative to soybean meal is mainly produced by the process called the pre-press solvent extraction. The pre-press solvent extraction does not only involve many steps, each step also involves a wide range of vital conditions including temperature, moisture and time. Variations in these processing conditions among and within processing plants may contribute to inconsistency in the chemical and nutritive compositions of the resulting meals. In addition, the desolventization/toasting step of the pre-press solvent extraction process has been implicated for reducing both the content and availability of amino acids (AA), especially lysine, for both broiler chickens and pigs. Canola meal end-users desire increased meal consistency for a more accurate and cost-effective feed formulation and more information on the nutritive value and heat damage of AA. The first objective of this thesis was to determine the effect of processing plant and year on the chemical composition and indicators of protein damage in CM. To achieve this, a chemical composition survey of CM from 11 processing plants that use the pre-press solvent extraction process was conducted over a 4-year period. Differences among processing plants and years were observed for protein, lysine, dietary fiber and its components, fat, and carbohydrates components. Over the 4 years, the highest variation was observed in the contents of simple sugars having a coefficient of variation (CV) of 41.7%), neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (NDICP; CV = 16.8%) and glucosinolates (CV = 35.3%), the components known to be sensitive to heat treatment. Among all AA, only lysine showed differences (P < 0.05) among processing plants. Lysine content averaged 18.5, 22.1, 22.9 and 20.7 g/kg in years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively, and was lowest in meals showing the highest NDICP and total dietary fiber values. Linear regression equations for predicting lysine, NDICP, and total dietary fiber from neutral detergent fiber (NDF) or NDF and CP were developed. The second objective was to determine the effect of processing plant and pelleting on the standardized ileal digestible AA content (in broiler chickens and pigs) and AMEn in broiler chickens of CM from Canadian processing plants. To achieve this, 8 CM samples were selected and fed to the animals in semi-purified diets containing the CM samples as the only protein source. Differences in these parameters were observed among processing plants. However, the effect of pelleting may be plant-dependent. The third objective was to develop prediction equations for quick determination of indicators of CM quality including lysine, neutral detergent insoluble crude protein, dietary fiber from NDF or NDF and CP and determination of standardized ileal digestible AA content from acid detergent fiber (ADF) and NDF. Results showed that the NDF content of CM accurately predicted its total dietary fiber content. The standardized ileal digestible contents of some essential AA in CM for broiler chickens and pigs can be predicted from the ADF content.
canola meal, chemical characteristics, standardized ileal digestible amino acid contents, broiler chickens, pigs, heat treatment, prediction equations