Dietary potassium liberalization with fruit and vegetables versus potassium restriction in people with chronic kidney disease (DK-Lib CKD): a clinical trial protocol
Background Potassium regulation in the body is primarily done in the kidney. In addition to this, hyperkalemia, occurs in approximately 10% of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with elevated all-cause mortality. Individuals with CKD are often told to restrict dietary potassium (K), however, this recommendation is based on low quality evidence. Reduced quality of life, limited dietary choices and nutritional deficiencies are all potential negative outcomes that may occur when restricting dietary K in CKD patients. There is a need for randomized controlled trials investigating the impact of dietary K modification on serum K concentrations in people with CKD. Methods A randomized 2-period crossover design comparing a liberalized K fruit and vegetable diet where participants will be required to consume ~ 3500 mg of dietary K daily, to a standard K restricted diet where participants will be required to consume < 2000 mg of dietary K daily. All participants will begin on a liberalized K run-in period for 2 weeks where they will receive fruit and vegetables home deliveries and for safety will have clinical chemistry, including serum potassium measurements taken after 1 week. Participants will then be randomized into either liberalized K or standard K diet for six weeks and then crossover to the other intervention for another 6 weeks after a 2-week washout period. Discussion 30 male and female CKD outpatients, ≥ 18 years of age, who have an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 15 and 45 ml/min/1.73m2 and serum K between 4.5 and 5.5 mEq/L. This design would have greater than 80% power to detect a difference of 0.35 mEq/L serum K between groups. Anthropometric measurements, clinical chemistry, dietary recalls, physical function assessments, as well as a quality of life assessments will also be measured in this trial. These findings will provide high quality evidence for, or against, recommendations for dietary K restriction in individuals living with CKD. The removal of K restriction could provide individuals living with CKD more dietary choice leading to improved dietary status and quality of life.
Chronic kidney disease, Potassium, Hyperkalemia, Nutrition, Quality of life
BMC Nephrology. 2023 Oct 13;24(1):301