On constitutional democracy: the relation between political deliberation, mixed constitutions, and the division of labour in society

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Vlahos, Constantine Nicholas
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This thesis normatively defends political equality and deliberation by citizens, arguing for the constitutional integration of randomly selected citizens’ bodies in modern representative democracies. This defence is initiated through Aristotle’s explication of the constitution of polity and its inclusion of all economic classes, especially through lottery as one method of selection for deliberative office. Since a unifying theme of this study is the justification of citizens’ deliberation through a labour theory of value, Aristotle’s philosophy is also criticized for its failure to politically value and include all labourers. This shortcoming propels applying Karl Marx, and his theory of the capitalist division of labour, to justify citizens’ assemblies that are fully inclusive. Finally, the feasibility and potential of a constitutionally implemented, randomly selected citizens’ body - as a means for mitigating political and socioeconomic hierarchy - is analyzed and reinforced through the contemporary case of the British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly.
Political Deliberation, Division of Labour