- ItemOpen AccessBone strength in Medieval Denmark: robusticity analyses from a rural and urban sample(University of Florida Press, 2022-07-27) Parker, Kaela; Larcombe, Linda; Stock, Jay T.; Boldsen, Jesper; Marx-Wolf, Heidi; Hoppa, Robert D.Objectives: The aim of the current study was to understand the transition in lower limb loading and terrestrial mobility during the urbanization revolution in medieval Denmark. This was accomplished by comparing the cross sectional geometric properties of the femora from two populations, the rural cemetery of Tirup and the urban Black Friars cemetery. Materials and Methods: Using two skeletal samples, the rural cemetery of Tirup, Jutland (1150-1350 A.D.), and the urban Black Friars cemetery, Funen (1240-1607 A.D.), cross sectional geometric properties of the right femora were examined. The cross sectional geometric properties of adult long bones are reflections of in-vivo loading. General patterns of relative mechanical loading during life can be interpreted by calculating the cross sectional geometric properties of a long bone’s diaphysis. Compressive and tensile rigidity and strength (CA), maximum and minimum bending rigidity (Imin, Imax), torsional rigidity (J), bending rigidity along the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes (Ix, Iy), and diaphyseal shape (Imax/Imin; Ix/Iy) at the femoral midshaft were calculated from 104 CT scans, 48 from Tirup (32 males, 16 females) and 56 from Black Friars (38 males, 18 females). Results: The results indicate significantly greater robusticity among the Black Friars sample for both males and females. Discussion: In opposition to the prevalent understanding of physicality in medieval communities, the results suggest that lower limb loading (and inferred terrestrial mobility) was greater in the urban setting. Cemetery make-up and population variation between the samples cannot, however, be discounted.
- ItemOpen AccessTHE SUBTLETIES OF STRESS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SKELETAL LESIONS BETWEEN THE MEDIEVAL AND POST-MEDIEVAL BLACK FRIARS CEMETERY POPULATION (13TH TO 17TH CENTURIES)(International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 2018-07-17) Scott, Amy B.; Hoppa, Robert D.The study of stress from an osteological perspective is challenging as we use skeletal remains to explore the lived experience and patterns of health. As an intricate overlap of multiple biological processes, the stress response system guides our understanding of how and why stress manifests as it does. Using traditional osteological methods of stress analysis, specifically cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis and enamel hypoplastic lesions, this study focuses on the relationship between these indicators to explore differences in stress manifestation in the medieval and post-medieval periods in Denmark. Using the Black Friars cemetery population (13th – 17th centuries), results show an increase in stress from the medieval into the post-medieval period likely dictated by the strains of urbanism on a predominantly poor population. Additionally, a younger mean age at death was noted when multiple mild-moderate indicators were present as compared to one severe indicator being present. A recognition of the intricacies of the stress response effectively aids in the exploration of stress manifestation and the relationship, if any, between these well-used skeletal indicators.
- ItemOpen AccessA RE-EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF RADIOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION ON THE IDENTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF HARRIS LINES(American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2015) Scott, Amy B.; Hoppa, Robert D.The identification of Harris lines through radiographic analysis has been well-established since their discovery in the late 19th century. Most commonly associated with stress, the study of Harris lines has been fraught with inconsistent identification standards, high levels of intra- and inter-observer error, and the inevitability of skeletal remodelling. Despite these methodological challenges, the use of Harris lines remains an important contributor to studies of health in archaeological populations. This research explores the radiographic process, specifically orientation and how Harris lines are initially captured for study. Using the Black Friars (13th – mid 17th centuries) skeletal sample from Denmark, 157 individuals (134 adults; 23 subadults) were radiographically analyzed in both an anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral (M-L) view for the left and right radii and tibiae. Based on the current methodological standards within the literature, it was hypothesized that the A-P view would provide the best resolution and visualization of Harris lines. The results, however, show that the number of lines visible in the M-L view were significantly higher than those visible in the A-P view; inferring that the M-L view is superior for the study of Harris lines.
- ItemOpen AccessTHE ICE AGE WITH LITTLE EFFECT? EXPLORING STRESS IN THE DANISH BLACK FRIARS CEMETERY BEFORE AND AFTER THE TURN OF THE 14TH CENTURY(International Journal of Palaeopathology, 2019-09) Scott, Amy B.; Hoppa, Robert D.The Little Ice Age, beginning in Europe in the 14th century, saw a period of climatic cooling and increased precipitation where food sources dwindled and famine became rampant, particularly in urban city centers. This study focuses on the Black Friars population (13th-17th centuries) to explore changes in stress in Denmark at the onset of the Little Ice Age. This study specifically explores the periods before and after the turn of the 14th century. Forty-five adult individuals were analyzed for cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, and enamel hypoplastic lesions. Results showed no statistically significant differences between the prevalence of these stress indicators between either time period; however, reduced age at death and increased lesion frequency was more prevalent post-1300. It was expected that increased stress would be evident in those buried after the turn of the 14th century due to the many challenges associated with wide spread climatic cooling; however, the reliance on nutrient rich marine resources and alms provisions may have helped lessen the burden of these stressors during this period of climatic hardship. Additionally, while famine characterized the beginning of the 14th century, agricultural rebound shortly after this period may have also influenced the stress levels observed.
- ItemOpen AccessP.Hamb.graec. 185: Garden Tax Between the Archives of (Lucius) Iulius Serenus and Gemellus Horion(2022-07-01) Sampson, C. MichaelEdition of a Hamburg papyrus containing a receipt for garden tax paid to Aurelius Melas, secretary of the tax collectors in Karanis.