Associations between dietary and circulating phytosterols and cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers in a Manitoba adult cohort

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dc.contributor.supervisor Myrie, Semone (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences) en_US
dc.contributor.author Kaur, Ramandeep
dc.date.accessioned 2020-12-07T21:48:20Z
dc.date.available 2020-12-07T21:48:20Z
dc.date.copyright 2020-11-21
dc.date.issued 2020 en_US
dc.date.submitted 2020-11-21T19:16:09Z en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1993/35154
dc.description.abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Elevated serum lipid levels and increased arterial stiffness are some of the risk factors responsible for the development of CVD. Phytosterols are well known for their cholesterol-lowering ability. Besides cholesterol-lowering, whether dietary phytosterols are beneficial for vascular function is not completely known yet. This thesis aimed to investigate the association between dietary and circulating phytosterols with serum lipid levels and arterial stiffness biomarkers, including blood pressure (BP), augmentation index (AIx), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The secondary objective was to investigate the relationship of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern scoring (MSDPS) with dietary phytosterols and its impact on CVD risk biomarkers. This cohort study on Manitoban adults included 157 men and 120 women, aged 30-46 years old. This study measured dietary and circulating phytosterols using 24-hour dietary recall and gas chromatography, respectively, and the MSDPS was used to evaluate the dietary pattern using the diet history questionnaire. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of covariance, multiple linear regression and correlation. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), total energy intake, fats as a percentage of energy intake, and dietary fiber, this study found that participants with high phytosterol intake (392.7±108.8 mg/d) in the highest quartile had 0.52 mmol/L (-10.2%) lower serum total cholesterol (TC) (P<0.05) and 0.47 mmol/L (-14.4%) lower (P<0.05) serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than did the participants in the lowest quartile (97.7±36.5 mg/d). Phytosterol intake in the highest quartile showed a significant reduction in systolic BP (-5.3%, P<0.01), diastolic BP (-4.5%, P<0.01), and PWV (-3.4%, P<0.05) than those in the lowest quartile. The increased sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratio correlated with reduced serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and diastolic BP, PWV (all P<0.001) and systolic BP (P<0.01) and increased high-density lipoprotein (P<0.01). A lower lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio was correlated with decreased PWV (P<0.0001). No significant associations were found between MSDPS and the dietary phytosterols. The study results concluded that dietary phytosterol intake is associated with cholesterol-lowering and reduced arterial stiffness. Therefore, the present study suggests that increased intake of dietary phytosterols could help to reduce the risk of CVD. en_US
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.subject Phytosterols en_US
dc.subject Cardiovascular disease en_US
dc.subject Cholesterol en_US
dc.subject Low-density lipoproteins en_US
dc.subject Vascular health en_US
dc.title Associations between dietary and circulating phytosterols and cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers in a Manitoba adult cohort en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis
dc.type master thesis en_US
dc.degree.discipline Food and Human Nutritional Sciences en_US
dc.contributor.examiningcommittee Mackay, Dylan (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences) en_US
dc.contributor.examiningcommittee Protudjer, Jennifer (Food and Human Nutritional Sciences) en_US
dc.contributor.examiningcommittee Czubryt, Micheal (Physiology and Pathophysiology) en_US
dc.degree.level Master of Science (M.Sc.) en_US
dc.description.note February 2021 en_US

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