Prevalence of neurovascular structures in the anterior mandible and differences based on dentition, age and sex; a retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study
Objective: To assess the prevalence of lingual and incisive vascular structures in the anterior aspect of the mandible and to see the effect sex, age and dentition status may have. Methods: A total of 191 anonymized cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were assessed by a single calibrated operator. Incisive canals and lingual canals present between the mental foramina were counted, with location, size, dentition status in the lower anterior mandibular sextant, as well as the distance between the alveolar crest for the most coronal centered lingual canal being noted. Results: Lingual canals were present in the midline area in 96% and in the lateral areas in about 25% of cases. Incisive canals had a prevalence under 10% for a given area in the mandible. Most canals observed were below 1 mm in diameter. The most coronal lingual canal in the center was 2 mm closer to the alveolar crest in females and in patients showing a degree of edentulism in the anterior mandible, with dentate patients also showing an increased number of lingual canals below 1 mm in size at the midline. Furthermore, aging appeared to impact the presence of lateral lingual canals. Although unclear, the dentition status could also affect the presence of larger incisive canals. Conclusions: The anterior mandible features several structures visible on CBCT scans. The present findings suggest that sex, age and dentition status could have an effect on their presence. As such, the previous variables should be considered when planning surgical interventions in the area.
Dental implant, Arteries, Mandible