Solid State Structure-Reactivity Studies on Bixbyites, Fluorites and Perovskites Belonging to the Vanadate, Titanate and Cerate Families
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This thesis primarily focuses on the systematic understanding of structure – reactivity relationships in two representative systems: bixbyite and related structures as well as indium doped CeO2. Topotactic reaction routes have gained significant attention over the past two decades due to their potential to access kinetically controlled metastable materials. This has contributed substantially to the understanding of solid state reaction pathways and provided first insights into mechanisms. Contrary to the widely used ex-situ methods, in – situ techniques including powder x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric – differential thermal analysis have been employed extensively throughout this work in order to follow the reaction pathways in real time. Detailed analysis of the AVO3 (A = In, Sc) bixbyite reactivity under oxidative conditions has been carried out and a variety of novel metastable oxygen defect phases have been identified and characterized. The novel metastable materials have oxygen deficient fluorite structures and consequently are potential ion conductors. Structural aspects of the topotactic vs. reconstructive transformations are illustrated with this model system. The structure – reactivity study of AVO3 phases was extended to AVO3 perovskite family. Based on the research methodologies and results from AVO3 bixbyite reactivity studies a generalized mechanistic oxidation pathway has been established with a non-vanadium phase, ScTiO3 bixbyite. However, there is stark contrast in terms of structural stability and features beyond this stability limit during AVO3 and ScTiO3 bixbyite reaction pathways. A series of complex reaction sequences including phase separation and phase transitions were identified during the investigation of ScTiO3 reactivity. The two-step formation pathway for the fluorite – type oxide ion conductor Ce1-xInxO2-δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) is being reported. The formation of the BaCe1-xInxO3-δ perovskites and the subsequent CO2-capture reaction with the formation of Ce1-xInxO2-δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) has been investigated in detail. The two-step formation pathway is contrasted with the unsuccessful direct method. The stability and the extent of In – doping for the CeO2 fluorite phases that can be achieved through this CO2 – capture method are reported. The necessity and strategies for the selection of appropriate intermediate precursors for the preparation of doped CeO2 are also reported.