The effect of voluntary exercise, with/without antioxidants, on meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS) in health and in prediabetes AND The study of cellular signaling pathways associated with MIS in skeletal muscle
Chowdhury, Kawshik K.
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Background: The augmented whole body glucose uptake response to insulin during the postprandial state is described as meal-induced sensitization (MIS). MIS occurs when the presence of food in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) activates two feeding signals (activation of hepatic parasympathetic nerves and elevation of hepatic glutathione level), and causes insulin to release hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS), which stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. The impairment of HISS release results in the absence of meal-induced insulin sensitization (AMIS), causing progression to a cluster of metabolic, vascular, and cardiac dysfunction, which we refer to as components of the AMIS syndrome. Objectives: The objective of my doctoral research was to study the manipulation of the HISS-pathway, in age- and diet-induced AMIS models, with exercise ± antioxidants. Also, in a separate project I studied the signaling pathways involved with the HISS action in skeletal muscle. Methods: The 7-day voluntary running was used as exercise intervention to manipulate the HISS pathway in healthy and prediabetic rats. The interaction of an antioxidant cocktail, SAMEC (S-adenosylmethionine + vitamin E + vitamin C), with the effects of exercise on postprandial insulin response was studied. Moreover, in the signaling studies the insulin and 5'-adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways were examined to test their possible involvement with the HISS action in skeletal muscle. Results: Voluntary running-wheel exercise for 7 days increases the postprandial glucose uptake response to insulin in health and in prediabetes through enhancement/restoration of HISS action. Supplementation with SAMEC during 7 days of exercise does not either harm or add benefits to the positive effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity. Finally, the signaling studies indicate that HISS increases the rate of glycogen synthesis in muscle through an insulin/AMPK-independent pathway.