Effects of whole and fractionated yellow pea flours on indices of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and thermogenesis as well as the gastrointestinal microbiome
MetadataShow full item record
Whole yellow pea flour (WPF) and fractionated yellow pea flour (FPF) are novel functional food ingredients that vary in nutritional composition. Consequently, the health benefits of WPF and FPF remain undefined. The purpose of this research was to identify the effects of WPF and FPF on risk factors and morbidities associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity as well as the gastrointestinal microbiome. Using USDA recommended dosages of WPF and FPF, clinical endpoints and the colonic microbiome were investigated using a human clinical trial engaging a cross-over design and a diet and energy controlled paradigm. Humans were also utilized to investigate post-prandial glycemic responses and sensory characteristics of novel functional foods formulated with WPF. Finally, Golden Syrian hamsters were used to assess the impact of high doses of WPF and FPF on clinical endpoints and caecal microbial abundance. Results reveal that USDA recommended dosages of WPF and FPF in humans decreased (p<0.05) fasting insulin and estimates of insulin resistance compared to white wheat flour (WF). Android-to-gynoid fat ratios in women were lower (p=0.027) in the WPF group compared to the WF group. FPF decreased (p<0.05) post-prandial energy expenditure alongside a tendency (p<0.075) to reduce carbohydrate oxidation. Novel biscotti and banana bread formulated with WPF induced low post-prandial glycemic responses which were similar to boiled whole yellow peas and significantly lower (p<0.05) than white bread. Sensory analysis of novel WPF biscotti and banana bread demonstrated that WPF-based food products are palatable and acceptable for human consumption. Hamsters consuming diets containing 10% WPF and FPF induced similar reductions (p<0.05) in fasting insulin levels compared to controls. However, animals consuming WPF increased (p<0.05) oxygen consumption while FPF decreased (p<0.05) fasting glucose levels. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that WPF and FPF induced distinct shifts in caecal microbial populations within the phyla Firmicutes. Finally, pyrosequencing analysis of human fecal microbiota demonstrated that FPF and WPF induced shifts in bacterial genera, primarily within Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In conclusion, whole and fractionated yellow pea flours are functional food ingredients and can be utilized to manage risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases in humans.