Transparent hillsides: defining a new direction for development in Chongqing
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In developing a set of guidelines for development in Chongqing this paper has first contextualized the city in terms of Chinese urban design history. This urban history is argued to have been shaped by three distinct eras of authoritarian rule: Imperial rule, from the 8th century B.C. to the 19th century; Maoist rule, from 1949-1978; and post-Mao communist rule, from 1978 to the present. It is further argued that the corresponding central authority in each of these eras has relied on a strategy of directing urban development as a means to propagate ideology. This characterization is then linked to many of the current problems with the direction of development in Chongqing. The urban environment of Chongqing is then analyzed from various scales and perspectives through history. From this analysis, a set of design guidelines is produced. These guidelines address educational structures, theoretical principles, governmental and legal instruments, and environmental strategies.