Enhancing bridge weigh-in-motion system by accurate observation of the velocity and axle spacings of moving truck using a geophone sensor
Bridges are a critical element of an economy's transportation network. Most old bridges, however, have some structural or geometrical flaws. Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, including bridge-weighing-in-motion (BWIM) devices, have evolved in recent years to identify and analyze the structural behaviour of old bridges with the aim of extending the lifetime of the structures. Heavy loads are one of the factors that should be considered and analyzed for bridge structures. It is one of the significant obstacles that bridges face, as they cause vibration, which leads to bridge decks cracking and steel girders to fatigue. Understanding the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW of a truck) and Axle weights determines the strength and the bridge deck and girders' load-bearing capability. The GVW is computed using the bridge Weigh in Motion (BWIM) system. This paper explores a new methodology utilizing geophones to estimate the velocity, number of axles, axle spacings, and individual axle weights of loads moving over a bridge. The main finding is that geophones can accurately determine the truck velocity and axle spacing based on the test data set conducted in the actual and laboratory model bridge. Therefore, the truck's complete configuration—an essential component for accurately assessing bridges' strength and weight-carrying capacity—will be defined by the truck's velocity, axle spacing, and GVW.