The role of environmental and health concerns on intention of using active transportation: theory of planned behaviour perspective
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Active transportation (AT) not only mobilizes people; it also has a positive impact on the environment and health of people. In this work, the role of environmental and health concerns on AT usage is studied. Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is applied to understand AT usage behaviour. A cross-Canada survey was conducted, spanning all ten provinces (n=465). Structural equation modeling is used to analyze the data with IBM SPSS AMOS 26. Statistically significant results, in the direction hypothesized, were found for the effects of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on AT usage intention. In addition, health concern had significant effects on intention of AT usage through attitude, subjective norms and PBC. While the effects of environmental concern on intention of AT usage through subjective norms and PBC were significant, the effect of environmental concern on attitude toward AT was not significant. Further, it was found that perceived weather conditions have a negative impact on PBC. Gender and age were identified as demographic factors affecting intention to use AT. Access to a vehicle (car) and access to a bicycle are also significant predictors of AT intentions. Policymakers are advised to emphasize the personal health benefits of AT. However, to increase AT usage across Canada more-targeted messaging will be necessary, in particular more age- and gender-customized messaging. Future research is needed to compare various cultures, countries, and environmental contexts (e.g. air quality levels). Regarding age, a U-shaped relationship with AT intention was evident. More research is also needed to better understand why the younger and older commuters have more favorable perceptions of AT, compared to those in the middle. While the increased time-availability of folks without child care responsibilities may explain this effect, further research is needed to enrich our understanding.