Tissue engineering a tendon-bone junction with biodegradable braided scaffolds
King, Martin W
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Abstract Background Tendons play an important role in transferring stress between muscles and bones and in maintaining the stability of joints. Tendon tears are difficult to heal and are associated with high recurrence rates. So, the objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold for tendon-bone junction regeneration. Methods Two types of polylactic acid (PLA) yarns, having fibers with round and four deep grooved cross-sections, were braided into tubular scaffolds and cultured with murine Transforming growth factor beta type II receptor (Tgfbr2)-expressing joint progenitor cells. The scaffolds were designed to mimic the mechanical, immuno-chemical and biological properties of natural mouse tendon-bone junctions. Three different tubular scaffolds measuring 2 mm in diameter were braided on a Steeger 16-spindle braiding machine and biological and mechanical performance of the three scaffolds were evaluated. Results The mechanical test results indicated that three different braided scaffold structures provided a wide range of mechanical properties that mimic the components of tendon bone junction and results of the biological tests confirmed cell viability, active cell attachment and proliferation throughout all three scaffolds. Conclusions This study has identified that the three proposed types of braided scaffolds with some improvement in their structures have the potential to be used as scaffolds for the regeneration of a tendon bone tissue junction.