Direct Metal Laser Sintering Titanium Implants: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Analysis of Reprocessed Powder
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Objectives: The aim of the study is to compare the chemical composition of two dental implants manufactured with two kinds of titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) using a 3D printing technique called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). The analyses involved two Ti-6Al-4V powders for DMLS: a) the control powder, obtained sealed directly from the manufacturer, not introduced to the production process; b) the experimental powder was recycled powder from the production line. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the control and experimental Titanium alloy powders and the dental implants were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Three different locations were selected on each of the four samples. Each location selected had 3 chemical composition readings at different depth; 0nm etch, 10nm etch, and 100nm etch. The readings represent the percent composition of the five major components of the titanium alloy powder surface; Oxygen, Carbon, Titanium, Aluminum, Vanadium. Results: XPS survey analyses show elevated presence of C in the 3D printed implants and no major difference among the major elements Ti, O, V. Conclusion: 3D printing of Root analogue implants (RAI) is a promising technique that can be used to replace non-restorable teeth as immediate implants.