Oil behavior in sea ice: changes in chemical composition and resultant effect on the complex permittivity (dielectrics) and radar signature of sea ice
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Within the Arctic, global warming has led to continual decreases in sea-ice extent and type. Shipping and oil exploration is, therefore, becoming increasingly more feasible, thereby increasing the potential of crude oil or fuel being spilled into the marine environment. This impending possibility has led to a need for the development of oil detecting techniques suitable for ice-covered waters. To this end, two artificial oil-in-ice mesocosm experiments were conducted to investigate the movements and interactions of oil in a sea ice environment, both on a macroscopic and microscopic scale. The resultant changes made to the physical properties of the ice post-oil injection were assessed; in particular, temperature, salinity, and complex permittivity (dielectrics) which are essential parameters associated with the remote sensing of sea ice were focused upon.