Optimization of enzyme production from food waste using Aspergillus sp.
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This study aimed to 1) investigate the feasibility of using SSF to treat food processing waste and food waste, 2) optimize the conditions for enzyme production during SSF. The results showed that pH, inoculum level, and moisture content did not significantly vary phytase production. However, different incubation periods, incubation temperatures, nitrogen sources, and carbon sources changed the phytase production significantly. The optimal conditions for phytase production consisted of a normal moisture content (79%) of potato waste, 1.0 mL inoculum size, and normal pH 6.1 at room temperature with an incubation time of 144 hrs. The highest phytase activity (5.17 ± 0.82 U/g ds) was obtained under the optimal conditions. When (NH4)2SO4 was used as a nitrogen source in the substrate, phytase activity increased to 12.93 ± 0.47 U/g ds, which was a 2.5-fold increase as compared with the control treatment. The results showed that all the fungi, except for strain F1-20-35A, had cellulase and xylanase production activities. In SSF process, the strain F2-20-44A showed the highest level of extracellular cellulase and xylanase activities, which are 17.37 ± 3.76 U/g ds and 189.24 ± 2.96 U/g ds, respectively. Moreover, treatment with normal moisture content (77%), 0.5 mL inoculum level at 25 ℃ incubation temperature for 6 days was the most efficient conditions for cellulase and xylanase productions (28.81 ± 0.67 U/g ds and 213.47 ± 10.66 U/g ds, respectively). Identification placed this strain within the Genus Aspergillus. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that strain Aspergillus sp. can be potentially used for enzyme production and proposed a new and economical method to produce high value enzymes using food waste by SSF. Turning food waste to enzymes could potentially alleviate environmental issues caused by food waste while leading to new revenue streams.