Effects of forest age and topography on boreal forest evapotranspiration and water balance
Barker, Corinne A.
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The boreal forest forms a band that stretches across the continents of the northern hemisphere. Wildfire disturbances have helped transform this forest into stands of varying ages with varying soil drainage. It is well known that the boreal forest contributes greatly to the global water cycle, but less is known as to how variable these water fluxes are throughout the forest mosaic. Throughout the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007, meteorological measurements were taken during the growing season from three different aged black spruce stands near Thompson, MB. The stands that were burned in 1930 and 1964 each included upland and lowland sites with independent measurements. The stand burned in 1850 had measurements taken only from an upland site. Evapotranspiration (ET) was calculated from the residual energy after net radiation (Rn), sensible heat flux (H) and ground heat flux were measured. We sought to investigate whether ET varied with stand age and topographic location. Results indicate that there is a significant increase in Rn, H, and ET as forests age. ET levels range from being 4% to 19% lower for younger stands. It is assumed that the depth of the organic layer at older sites allows for mosses to more effectively wick up available moisture through capillary rise, and have higher transpiration levels. The larger tree density at the 1964 sites compared to the 1930 sites may account for a portion of the observed increase in ET for these ages. Differences in drainage between the 1930 and 1850 sites may also account for a portion of the increase in ET observed between these two ages. Wetland sites had H and ET that were significantly less than for the upland sites. ET rates were 11 to 20% higher at the upland sites than the wetland sites; part of this difference is thought to be due to the presence of larger trees, with an increased capacity to transpire water at upland sites. As the number of forest fires has been predicted to increase substantially in the future, the prospect of the boreal forest average stand age being younger would affect the boreal’s water and energy budgets. Our data helps to describe water and energy budgets for forest stands with different drainage capabilities, for stands between the ages of 45 and 160 years. This knowledge will be used to help predict the degree and speed of climate change that will be experienced in the boreal forest.