YEAST PRODUCTS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF IMMUNOMODULATORY AND GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY FOR BROILER CHICKENS
MetadataShow full item record
The use of antibiotic growth promoters has been limited all around the world because of the concerns about antibiotic resistant bacteria and the presence of antibiotic residues in poultry products. Yeast-derived products are rich sources of ß1,3-1,6-glucan, mannan polysaccharides, and nucleotides and are considered as possible antibiotic alternatives due to their potential intestinal health benefits, growth promotion, and immune system stimulation. The objectives of the current research were: (1) to the evaluate effect of yeast products derived from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, gut histomorphology, and innate immune response of broiler chickens; (2) to investigate the effect of yeast products, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), on innate and antibody-mediated immune response following immunization with different antigens; and (3) to examine the effect of yeast-derived products and DDGS on growth performance, incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE), and local innate immunity in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens. Overall, supplementation of diets with yeast products did not affect growth performance of broilers. However, the diets containing yeast cell walls (YCW) and nucleotides increased the villus height in the jejunum and enhanced the number of goblet cells in the ileum. Inclusion of diets with yeast products did not activate the innate immune response of birds under non-pathogen challenge conditions. However, the diet containing YCW activated Th2 cell-mediated immune response in birds immunized with sheep red blood cells and bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, supplementation of diets with YCW and DDGS in birds challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, activated the systemic innate immune response. Regarding antibody-mediated immune response, when compared to the control, serum antibody titer and specific antibody response against different antigens were not affected by dietary treatments. In the C. perfringens challenge study, growth performance, NE lesions and C. perfringens counts in the intestine were not affected by yeast-derived products. However, diets containing YCW and nucleotides stimulated the local innate immune response of birds by upregulation of cytokines and receptors involved in innate immunity. Such findings suggest that the immune-adjuvant like properties of YCW and nucleotides activate the innate immunity of broiler chickens following immunization or challenge with different antigens.