An Annotated Bibliography on Lake Manitoba and Adjoining Waters
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Lake Manitoba located in south-central Manitoba, is the thirteenth largest freshwater lake in North America, spanning approximately 4700 km2. The lake is an important resource for Manitoba in terms of fisheries, recreation, hydrology and wildlife. For the past few decades there has been a growing awareness, as a result of few studies on Lake Manitoba and its surrounding waterbodies that the water quality of the lake has been deteriorating for at least the past 30 years. This has increased the need for adequate information on the current and historical biological health of Lake Manitoba and adjoining water bodies, primarily to adequately assess of the impacts of a wide range of human influences and developments on the biological health of the lake and surrounding water bodies. This has resulted in a growing need for a comprehensive bibliography summarizing studies conducted on Lake Manitoba and adjoining water bodies. In this annotated bibliography the attempted has been to compile all substantive references addressing the current and historical biological health of Lake Manitoba. Selected water bodies that surround Lake Manitoba have also been included in the bibliography including Lake St. Martin, Waterhen Watershed, Pineimuta Lake and Marsh, Dauphin River, Fairford River, the Whitemud Watershed, and Delta Marsh. The lower Assiniboine River, from Brandon to the Assiniboine River Diversion (also known as the Portage Diversion) has also been included, along with the Assiniboine Diversion. In term of biological health, publication dealing with historical and current water quality conditions and water levels, and their effects in the above mentioned water bodies have been included in the bibliography. The effects of water quality and water levels include effects on the physical, chemical and biological features of the ecosystem. Publications containing information on historical regulation of Lake Manitoba and water levels in the lake have also been included. In total approximately 400 publications are included in this bibliography, spanning a period of over 125 years, with publications as early as 1876 included, continuing up until the beginning of 2002. In the bibliography the content of each publication has been concisely summarized. The summaries given for each publication, focus in material in the documents that pertains to Lake Manitoba and the other water bodies mentioned above. A summary table is also include in this report in Section two, to exemplify specific subject material that is contained in the publications such as various water quality parameters, and information on fisheries, flora, fauna, agriculture,recreational usage, soils and geology. The location and season of field studies is also given in the table. Locations where publications can be found, if known, are given to aid the reader in locating copies of the publications. A list of the various locations is given along with addresses, contact information, and hours of operation in Section three. Another section (section four) has also been included, which contains a brief list of historical photographs of Lake Manitoba, and select surrounding water bodies. From this bibliography it is apparent that there is a lack of information on the current and historical health of Lake Manitoba, and the majority of its surrounding water bodies. While the general hydrology of the Lake is relatively well documented, many aspects are inadequately understood, including the physical limnology and water chemistry of the lake. Water quality data is sporadically available on the lake as early as 1926. During the 1960s and 1970s there was a water quality monitoring program carried out at up to sixteen sites in the North and South Basins of the lake. However, the sampling program was reduced to six stations in 1973, with three in each basin, and in 1977 the program was eliminated all together. Furthermore, most of the data that were gathered from the sampling programs are unpublished. Today, only one sampling station exists in the entire lake located approximately 1 km offshore from the south end of the South Basin. The site has been monitoring since 1991. Much of the scientific data gathered on Lake Manitoba has been biological in nature, mostly concerning the lakes fishery. Relatively few published studies exist which have examined the algal or invertebrate composition of the lake. There is clearly an essential need for more scientific data to be gathered on the biological health of Lake Manitoba, as well as its surrounding water bodies. It should also be noted that due to the expansive amount of publications that have resulted from research studies that have been conducted at Delta Marsh only those that directly relate biological, chemical and influences from Lake Manitoba on the marsh and surrounding area, and influences on the lake from the surrounding watershed are included in this bibliography. The majority of studies conducted in Delta Marsh have also been previously sited in a bibliography compiled by den Haan (unpublished) that is currently in the final stages of complication and will be published later this year. Publications and theses resulting from work at the Delta Marsh can also be found in the Delta Marsh Field Station (University of Manitoba) Annual Reports that can be obtained through the Delta Marsh Field Station (University of Manitoba) (see locations list). It should also be noted that currently publications are still being added on a daily basis to the Manitoba Conservation and Environment Library, since the closure and the Manitoba Department of Natural Resources Library, and the transfer of its publications to the Manitoba Conservation and Environment Library. Approximately 1,000 publications are being added monthly to the library’s catalogue. As a result some publications, other than the ones included in this bibliography could exist on Lake Manitoba and the other surrounding water bodies; however they were not accessible during the compilation of this bibliography, so they may not have been included.