Endogenous Phenolics from Expeller-pressed Canola Oil Refining Byproducts: Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities in Cell Culture and Deep-fat Frying Models
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Sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in refining byproducts of commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils were characterized and isolated. Additionally, the antioxidant activities of the phenolics were examined by three systems including an in vitro non-biological related assay, a cellular assay and a deep-fat frying model. Sinapic acid (SA： 42.9 µg/g), Sinapine (SP: 199 µg/g), and Canolol (CAN: 344 µg/g) were found in different byproducts of canola oil refining, namely, soapstock, spent bleaching clay, and wash-water, respectively. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other non-identified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg /g) were found in deodistillates (DDL). CAN and DDL revealed significant protection effect (p<0.05) against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation in two mammalian cell lines. The results of deep-fat frying studies indicated positive effects of CAN and DDL in preventing lipid oxidation. The canola oils fortified with DDL and CAN showed a considerable reduction (p < 0.05) in oxidation products of lipid after frying.