Predicting the extent of rock failure/loosening above underground excavations in massive and jointed rock
This study is primarily a numerical investigation into the geomechanical response and deformation of two kinds of rock materials, massive and jointed rocks to excavation. Two finite element programs Phase2 and InSight2D were used to study the development of the failure/damage zones above an underground opening in massive rock. The results of simulations using a number of damage/failure criteria were compared to crack observations made by borescope in a potash mine near Esterhazy, Saskatchewan. The distinct element code UDEC was employed to identify modes of failure of roof in underground openings excavated in horizontally layered, vertically jointed rock.