Development of a Quadriplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay (FMIA) for the Detection of Antibody Responses to Influenza A Viruses and Newcastle Disease Virus
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Surveillance of domestic poultry flocks for antibodies against avian influenza and Newcastle disease to detect and differentiate between these diseases is very important. The ability to determine if the detected influenza virus antibodies belong to one of the reportable H5 or H7 subtypes is imperative. These two major viruses are continually responsible for economic loss in poultry industries all over the world. Current serological methods of detection are an effective means of detecting antibody responses to these viruses, however continually investigating improved methods of surveillance is important. Development of a serological assay using Luminex technology which involves the use of recombinantly generated influenza A nucleoprotein, hemagglutinin H5, hemagglutinin H7, and Newcastle disease nucleocapsid proteins bound to Magplex beads allowed for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against these proteins that matches the efficiency of past methods while maintaining high levels of specificity and overall accuracy. Assay development took the form of two connected projects beginning with construction of an assay that operated in duplex, detecting antibodies against influenza nucleoprotein (AIV-NP) and Newcastle disease nucleocapsid protein (APMV-1-NC). Once optimized, the second half of development involved expansion of the assay to include detection of H5 (AIV-H5) and H7 (AIV-H7) subtypes, as well as the addition of internal assay quality controls to monitor assay performance over time. Assay thresholds and overall performance of both of these functional assays were evaluated using large quantities of field and experimental sera from chickens and turkeys to maximize specificity and overall accuracy.