Bulk deposition of pesticide mixtures in a Canadian prairie city and the influence of soil temperature fluctuations on 17β-estradiol mineralization
Andronak, Lindsey Amy
Tests were conducted for 71 pesticides in weekly bulk (wet + dry) deposition samples collected from May 25 to September 21 over two years at two sites in the City of Winnipeg, Canada. Twenty-one pesticides and their metabolites were detected in this study and 99% of samples collected contained mixtures of two or more pesticides. Malathion and glyphosate were the largest contributors to bulk deposition in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A second study examined the mineralization of 2,4-D and 17β-estradiol using a novel in-field soil microcosm study and a series of laboratory experiments under different temperature incubations. Results indicated that temperature fluctuations do not greatly affect the amount or rate of mineralization relative to the traditionally constant laboratory incubations of 20°C; however long-term freezing of soil reduced potential mineralization over time. This research advances scientific knowledge of agri-chemical fate and provides data for strengthening current environmental policy analysis in Canada.
17β-estradiol, 2,4-D, mineralization, in-field, microcosms, freezing, rate constant, temperature fluctuations, atmospheric deposition, glyphosate, malathion