Modeling, optimization and hardware-in-loop simulation of hybrid electric vehicles

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Tara, Ehsan
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This thesis investigates modeling and simulation of hybrid electric vehicles with particular emphasis on transient modeling and real-time simulation. Three different computer models, i.e. a steady state model, a fully-detailed transient model and a reduced-intensity transient model, are developed for a hybrid drive-train in this study. The steady-state model, which has low computational intensity, is used to determine the optimal battery size and chemistry for a plug-in hybrid drive-train. Simulation results using the developed steady state model show the merits of NiMH and Li-ion battery technologies. Based on the obtained results and the reducing cost of Li-ion batteries, this battery chemistry is used throughout this research. A fully-detailed transient model is developed to simulate the vehicle behaviour under different driving conditions. This model includes the dynamics of the power train components such as the engine, the power-electronic converters and vehicle controllers of all levels. The developed transient model produces an accurate representation of the drive-train including the switching behaviour of the power electronic converters. A reduced-intensity transient model (also referred to as a dynamic average model) is developed for real-time hardware-in-loop simulation of the vehicle. By reducing the computational demand of the detailed transient model using averaging techniques, the reduced-intensity model is implemented on a real-time simulator and is interfaced to an external subsystem such as an actual battery. The setup can be used to test existing and emerging battery technologies, which may not have an accurate mathematical model. Extensive tests are performed to verify the accuracy and validity of the results obtained from the developed hardware-in-loop simulation setup.
Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Modeling, Hardware-in-loop simulation, Real-time simulation