Implications of forest management techniques for biodiversity, species and ecosystem diversity, among Lepidoptera in planted and naturally regenerated jack pine stands

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Elliott, Brent Gordon
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In 1993 and 1994, butterflies and moths were collected in planted and naturally regenerated stands of jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb., of four different age classes, 5, 15, 25 and 40 years after establishment. Species diversity $(\alpha)$ was measured using the log series $\alpha$ index. Ecosystem diversity was measured using Sorenson's coefficient and Kendall's $\tau$ rank correlation coefficient. Ordination analysis was conducted on both groups of Lepidoptera, vegetation species and environmental data: light intensity, coefficient of variation of light intensity, air temperature, tree density and coefficient of variation of tree density. Number of individuals for the butterflies was not significantly affected by any of stand age, regeneration type or the interaction of stand age with regeneration type in either 1993 or 1994. The number of species was significantly affected only by stand age in 1993. Species diversity of butterflies, as represented by the log series $\alpha$ index, were significantly affected by regeneration type and the interaction of regeneration type and stand age in one of the two years of the study. The same trend was observed in both years. Butterflies showed a preference for intermediate aged stands. Alpha diversity of moths was significantly affected by stand age in both years of the study. Ordination analysis of the moths indicated that unlike the butterflies, moths were not generally found in association with their food plants. Measures of $\beta$ diversity indicated that planted stands and naturally regenerated stands did not significantly differ for the moths. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)