Effect of flaxseed gum on muffin and salad dressing quality and stability

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Stewart, Sandra Joyce
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Two types of food emulsions (muffins and model salad dressings) were evaluated to determine the potential of flaxseed gum as a feasible alternative to two commercial gums, xanthan and guar gum. Flaxseed gum improved muffin height and volume with no significant changes in texture as measured by instrumental and sensory test methods. The primary effect of hydrocolloids in the muffins was to maintain higher batter viscosity during heating. Higher viscosity values reduce gas diffusion and migration of the air cells as well as protect the batter from shocks or vibrations which may cause the emulsion to rupture resulting in a bakery product of low volume. Flaxseed gum appears to act as a steric stabilizer in the model salad dressing due to its surface active ability. For stabilization, sufficient adsorbing flaxseed gum $({>}0.45$% w/w) was required to cover the particle surface or else bridging flocculation occurred. Solvent quality affected the stability of the model oil in water emulsions. Flaxseed gum stabilized emulsions were stable at pHs greater than 2.8. Values lower than this caused the polysaccharide to have a compact configuration or cause cleavage of the polymer creating instability. There was no observed difference in emulsion stability (with regard to creaming, mean droplet size, complex viscosity, phase angle, Newtonian viscosity and instantaneous elastic modulus) when cv. Norman flaxseed gum was replaced with $\rm Linola\sp{TM}.$ Xanthan gum formulated emulsions displayed higher viscosities and the possibility of increased network structure. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)