Ultra-WideBand (UWB) microwave tomography using full-wave analysis techniques for heterogeneous and dispersive media

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Sabouni, Abas
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This thesis presents the research results on the development of a microwave tomography imaging algorithm capable of reconstructing the dielectric properties of the unknown object. Our focus was on the theoretical aspects of the non-linear tomographic image reconstruction problem with particular emphasis on developing efficient numerical and non-linear optimization for solving the inverse scattering problem. A detailed description of a novel microwave tomography method based on frequency dependent finite difference time domain, a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations and Genetic Algorithm (GA) as a global optimization technique is given. The proposed technique has the ability to deal with the heterogeneous and dispersive object with complex distribution of dielectric properties and to provide a quantitative image of permittivity and conductivity profile of the object. It is shown that the proposed technique is capable of using the multi-frequency, multi-view, and multi-incident planer techniques which provide useful information for the reconstruction of the dielectric properties profile and improve image quality. In addition, we show that when a-priori information about the object under test is known, it can be easily integrated with the inversion process. This provides realistic regularization of the solution and removes or reduces the possibility of non-true solutions. We further introduced application of the GA such as binary-coded GA, real-coded GA, hybrid binary and real coded GA, and neural-network/GA for solving the inverse scattering problem which improved the quality of the images as well as the conversion rate. The implications and possible advantages of each type of optimization are discussed, and synthetic inversion results are presented. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of providing the quantitative images, although more research is still required to improve the image quality. In the proposed technique the computation time for solution convergence varies from a few hours to several days. Therefore, the parallel implementation of the algorithm was carried out to reduce the runtime. The proposed technique was evaluated for application in microwave breast cancer imaging as well as measurement data from university of Manitoba and Institut Frsenel's microwave tomography systems.
Microwave imaging, Microwave tomography, Breast cancer detection, finite difference time domain, Genetic algorithm, Global optimization, Breast imaging, Frequency dependence finite difference time domain, Real genetic algorithm, Binary genetic algorithm, Hybrid genetic algorithm, Maxwell's equations, Inverse scattering problem