Contributions to the bionomics of the spruce budworm, Cacoecia fumiferana Clem., in southeastern Manitoba and northwestern Ontario
Smith, Donald Newell
The Spruce Budworm, Cacoecia fumiferana Clem., is a member of the microlepiodopterous family Tortricidae and appears to be indigenous to North America. Generically, it possesses considerable synonyny, being described in the literature variously as Tortrix, Archips and Harmologa fumiferana. The original description by CLEMENS (65') designated the species as Tortrix fumiferana. The moth occurs in two chief colour phases, one of which appears to occur most often in the Eastern section, feeding chiefly on Balsam fir and White spruce and predominantly grey in colour (GIBSON '25, CHAMBERS and THOMPSON '33); the other occurs most often on pines and in colour tends towards the copper shades (CHAMBERS and THOMPSON '33). GRAHAM ('35) has proposed that there is a biological race common to the central forested areas of North America and specifically adapted to feeding upon Jack Pine. This section aims merely to present a graphic picture of the widespread distribution of the pest, in a general way. No attempt is made to treat of the outbreaks from an historical or economic point of view....