A study of the adequacy of the present system of classification, promotion and adjustment in the Machray Junior High School, Winnipeg

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Hodgkinson, Frederick Adam.
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Emphasis has shifted from learning of the memoriter type to learning for understanding. Ability to apply techniques and skills have a place but not the first place in the learning of the three R's. These are no longer considered as ends in themselves but as means to the more important objective - understanding to the point where the individual consciously or unconsciously applies them to every day life situations. Furthermore, and but another aspect of the same development, subject matter has been altered and regrouped to render the organization of ideas and understanding possible to varying levels of learning. Naturally, conflicting points of view and considerable confusion have resulted as the process of change has altered aims and procedures... New data on individual differences have an important effect on curricula, objectives, and methods. Teachers realize that the children in their classes have a range of several years in ability and achievement, and consequently attempt to vary the requirements instead of trying to make all alike. The school must meet the needs of a heterogeneous group of pupils, differing in mental ability, health, interests, background, vocational needs, experiences, and financial resources. The curricula, objectives, and methods have to be individualized to meet the needs and capacities of the learners... ... To-day the Elementary Schools of Winnipeg have realized the limitations of written examinations with consequent gradings and are attempting to work out a new scale of values. The Junior High Schools are being affected by this movement. Standardized tests and teachers' opinions are contributing more and more toward attaining a more adequate estimate of the use that a pupil is making of his capacities...