An Improved Wide-Band System Equivalent Technique for Real Time Digital Simulators
This thesis introduces a new modeling approach that allows very large power systems to be modeled on a real time electro-magnetic transients (EMT) digital simulator with reduced hardware costs. The key step in achieving this is the development of an improved wide-band multi-port equivalent, which reduces a large power network into a small manageable equivalent model that preserves wideband behaviors. This approach has a foundation method that use a two part equivalent in which the high frequency behavior of the equivalenced network is represented by a terminating frequency dependent network equivalent (FDNE), with the low frequency behavior being modeled using a detailed Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) model that only models the electromechanical behavior. This approach allowed the modelling of medium size electric regions up to hundreds of buses in real time. This thesis extends the equivalent by implementing a reduced order of the detailed electromechanical TSA equivalent mentioned above. Coherency based reduction is used for the electromechanical model of the power network to be equivalenced, and is implemented as a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type electromechanical equivalent. A challenge in implementing the FDNE is to ensure that it is a passive network, as otherwise its inclusion could lead to unstable simulation. This thesis also introduces a practical procedure to enforce passivity in the FDNE. The validity of the proposed technique is demonstrated by comparing the approach with detailed electromagnetic simulations of the well-known 39 bus New England system and a modified 39 bus system with an HVDC infeed with coupling between the dc line and an adjacent ac line, in addition to a 108 bus ac system. The power of the method is demonstrated by the real-time simulation of a large system with 2300 busses and 139 generators. It has been shown that this approach has the potential to increase by at least one order of magnitude the size of the network that can be modeled and thus on a real time electro-magnetic transients (EMT) digital simulator with reduced hardware costs.
Real Time Digital Simulators (RTDS), Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE), Passivity Enforcement, Coherency-Based Dynamic Equivalent, Electromagnetic Transient (EMT), Transient Stability Analysis (TSA)