Barley and flax hull ingredients as functional foods
The purpose of the research was to investigate the potential for converting agricultural by-products, barley hull and flaxseed hull as well as their co-extract, into value-added functional food ingredients. Four varieties of barley hull and 3 types of flaxseed hull were hydrolyzed in calcium hydroxide solution in a water bath at 70°C for 4 hrs with shaking. The major phenolic compounds in barley hull, flaxseed hull and their co-extracts were identified by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (PAD) and quadrupole - time of flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid and vanillin, and four ferulate dehydrodimers were detected in barley hull and their co-extracts. Quantitative analysis was conducted on the phenolic acids using the available standards. However, the phenolic compounds in flaxseed were found to be distinct from that of barley hull. Large amounts of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), ferulic acid glucoside (FeAG), p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) were found in flaxseed hull with minor content of caffeic acid glucoside (CAG) and flavonoids herbacitin glucoside (HDG), whereas the phytochemical profile of the co-extract was enriched by combining major phenolic compounds from both barley hull and flaxseed hull.The antioxidant activity of barley hull, flaxseed hull as well as their co-extract was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging assay while total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. After screening using chemical assays, the representative barley hull extract, flaxseed hull extract as well as their co-extract were tested for their intracellular antioxidant activity and the antiproliferative activity in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Both chemical assays and the cell culture assays indicated that barley and flaxseed hull had strong antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity. Although the co-extract exhibited the strong antioxidant activity in the chemicals assay, it behaved differently in the cell culture assay, which may be attributed to the chemical and biological properties of the major phenolics in the co-extract.Following evaluation of the antioxidant activity and anticancer effect of barley hull extract, flaxseed hull extract as well as their co-extract, each type of extract was incorporated into Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The phytochemical profile of CSB was enriched by incorporating barley hull extract, flaxseed hull extract as well as their co-extract, which resulted in a significant enhancement in the antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH and ORAC. Therefore, barley hull, flaxseed hull and their co-extract are suggested as promising sources of functional food ingredients.
barley hull, flax hull, functional food, prostate cancer