Improved models of electric machines for real-time digital simulation

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Banitalebi Dehkordi, Ali
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This thesis advances the state of the art in modeling electric machines in electro-magnetic transient simulation programs, particularly in real-time digital simulators. A new tool, developed in this thesis, expands the application of real-time digital simulators to closed-loop testing of protection relays designed to protect synchronous machines during internal faults. To evaluate the inductances of synchronous machines, a winding function approach was developed in this thesis which is capable of taking into account both the actual distribution of windings and the shape of the pole-arc. Factors such as MMF drop in the iron and effects of slots are compensated by evaluating the effective permeance function of the machine using experimentally measured values of d-, q- and 0- axis inductances. In this winding function approach, the effects of magnetic saturation are also included by considering the actual distribution of magneto-motive force in each loading condition of the machine. The inductances of an experimental machine are evaluated using this approach and validated using the finite-element method and laboratory measurements. This thesis also proposes an embedded phase-domain approach for time-domain simulation of the machine model in electromagnetic transients programs. The approach significantly improves the numerical stability of the simulations. Special numerical techniques are introduced, which speed up the execution of the algorithm as needed for real-time simulation. The machine model is validated in healthy and faulted conditions using simulations and laboratory experiments. Effects of damper grid representation on simulating turn-to-turn faults are investigated. The capability of this new real-time synchronous machine model in closed-loop testing of synchronous machines ground- faults protection relays is clearly demonstrated.
electric machine, real-time digital simulation, electro-magnetic transient programs, digital transient network analyzer, protection relay, closed-loop testing, winding function approach, permeance, saturation, damper grid, internal faults, harmonics