Winnipeg flood hazard management

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Zhang, Xueyong.
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Flood hazard management is a broad activity. This thesis is concerned with four aspects of Winnipeg flood hazard management: flood hazard analysis, mitigation measures, disaster preparedness, and disaster response organization. In the flood hazard analysis, the causes of flooding and historical floods have been investigated. Based on the historical flood data, flood frequency analysis was conducted in order to determine the recurrence of flooding. Flood hazard adjustments in Winnipeg consist of structural works and non-structural measures. The four flood control works and the flood protection systems in Winnipeg have been extensively used since their installation, and they have protected the city from major flood damages In 1974, 1979 and 1996 when the flood threat was greatest. There is a need to elevate primary dykes after many years of operation, and to convert some temporary dykes into permanent structures. It has been ascertained that the true discharge for a 160-year flood is higher than that originally computed using the Redwood Bridge flood data. A range of non-structural measures has been examined in this thesis. Of them, the FDRP and flood forecasting were successfully implemented. Government legislation has been important through exercising control over urban development. In view of an increasing flood damage potential, an insurance program involving public funds and the private insurance industry could be introduced in order to provide financial assistance to property owners. Regarding disaster preparedness in Winnipeg, planning, training, education, exercise, warning, and the JEPP program have been reviewed. Flood disaster preparedness training and education of the general public is very low, and more information materials need to be developed and distributed. Electronic media and other educational methods should be employed, especially in the spring time, to educate the public. In terms of Winnipeg's flood disaster management system, appropriate government departments and relevant legislation have been studied. Winnipeg flood manuals and guidelines have to be revised periodically in order to reflect changes in operation. Inter-agency communication and coordination should be augmented in order to provide more efficient disaster management. To prepare for a future f1ood response, a volunteer system should be established by the city of Winnipeg in conjunction with Human Resources Development canada.