Optimal bispectral index level of sedation and cerebral oximetry in traumatic brain injury: a non-invasive individualized approach in critical care?

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Froese, Logan
Gomez, Alwyn
Sainbhi, Amanjyot S.
Batson, Carleen
Slack, Trevor
Stein, Kevin Y.
Mathieu, Francois
Zeiler, Frederick A.
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Abstract Background Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been linked with worse outcomes, with literature suggesting that current therapy guidelines fail to significantly impact cerebrovascular reactivity. The cerebral oximetry index (COx_a) is a surrogate measure of cerebrovascular reactivity which can in theory be obtained non-invasively using regional brain tissue oxygen saturation and arterial blood pressure. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between objectively measured depth of sedation through BIS and autoregulatory capacity measured through COx_a. Methods In a prospectively maintained observational study, we collected continuous regional brain tissue oxygen saturation, intracranial pressure, arterial blood pressure and BIS in traumatic brain injury patients. COx_a was obtained using the Pearson’s correlation between regional brain tissue oxygen saturation and arterial blood pressure and ranges from − 1 to 1 with higher values indicating impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity. Using BIS values and COx_a, a curve-fitting method was applied to determine the minimum value for the COx_a. The associated BIS value with the minimum COx_a is called BISopt. This BISopt was both visually and algorithmically determined, which were compared and assessed over the whole dataset. Results Of the 42 patients, we observed that most had a parabolic relationship between BIS and COx_a. This suggests a potential “optimal” depth of sedation where COx_a is the most intact. Furthermore, when comparing the BISopt algorithm with visual inspection of BISopt, we obtained similar results. Finally, BISopt % yield (determined algorithmically) appeared to be independent from any individual sedative or vasopressor agent, and there was agreement between BISopt found with COx_a and the pressure reactivity index (another surrogate for cerebrovascular reactivity). Conclusions This study suggests that COx_a is capable of detecting disruption in cerebrovascular reactivity which occurs with over-/under-sedation, utilizing a non-invasive measure of determination and assessment. This technique may carry implications for tailoring sedation in patients, focusing on individualized neuroprotection.
Intensive Care Medicine Experimental. 2022 Aug 13;10(1):33