- ItemOpen AccessForce–velocity relationship in Paralympic powerlifting: two or multiple-point methods to determine a maximum repetition(2022-08-24) Aidar, Felipe J.; Brito, Ciro J.; de Matos, Dihogo G.; de Oliveira, Levy A. S.; de Souza, Rapahel F.; de Almeida-Neto, Paulo F.; de Araújo Tinoco Cabral, Breno G.; Neiva, Henrique P.; Neto, Frederico R.; Reis, Victor M.; Marinho, Daniel A.; Marques, Mário C.; Clemente, Filipe M.; Nobari, HadiAbstract Background Due to the absence of evidence in the literature on Paralympic Powerlifting the present study investigated various methods to assess bench press maximum repetition and the way each method influences the measurement of minimum velocity limit (MVT), load at zero velocity (LD0), and force–velocity (FV). Objective To evaluate the precision of the multi-point method using proximal loads (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one repetition maximum; 1RM) compared to the four-point method (50, 60, 70, and 80% of 1RM) and the two-point method using distant loads (40 and 80% and 50 and 80% of 1RM) in in the MVT, LD0, and FV, in bench press performed by Paralympic Powerlifters (PP). Methods To accomplish this, 15 male elite PP athletes participated in the study (age: 27.7 ± 5.7 years; BM: 74.0 ± 19.5 kg). All participants performed an adapted bench press test (free weight) with 6 loads (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% 1RM), 4 loads (50, 60, 70, and 80% 1RM), and 2 loads (40–80% and 50–80% 1RM). The 1RM predictions were made by MVT, LD0, and FV. Results The main results indicated that the multiple (4 and 6) pointsmethod provides good results in the MVT (R2 = 0.482), the LD0 (R2 = 0.614), and the FV (R2 = 0.508). The two-point method (50–80%) showed a higher mean in MVT [1268.2 ± 502.0 N; ICC95% 0.76 (0.31–0.92)], in LD0 [1504.1 ± 597.3 N; 0.63 (0.17–0.86)], and in FV [1479.2 ± 636.0 N; 0.60 (0.10–0.86)]. Conclusion The multiple-point method (4 and 6 points) and the two-point method (40–80%) using the MVT, LD0, and FV all showed a good ability to predict bench press 1RM in PP.
- ItemOpen AccessA pilot and feasibility study of a randomized clinical trial testing a self-compassion intervention aimed to increase physical activity behaviour among people with prediabetes(2022-05-27) Signore, Alana K.; Jung, Mary E.; Semenchuk, Brittany; Kullman, Sasha M.; Tefft, Olivia; Webber, Sandra; Ferguson, Leah J.; Kowalski, Kent; Fortier, Michelle; McGavock, Jon; Ahmed, Rashid; Orr, Marion; Strachan, ShaelynAbstract Background Seventy-five per cent of individuals with prediabetes will eventually be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Physical activity is a cornerstone in reducing type 2 diabetes risk but can be a challenging behaviour to adopt for those living with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes experience difficult emotions associated with being at risk for a chronic disease, which can undermine self-regulation. Self-compassion enhances self-regulation because it mitigates difficult emotions and promotes adaptive coping. We performed a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a self-compassion informed intervention to increase physical activity for persons with prediabetes. Methods This explanatory mixed methods study tested the feasibility and acceptability of a two-arm, randomized, single-blind, actively controlled, 6-week online intervention. Using a 1:1 allocation ratio, participants (identified as people with prediabetes, low physical activity, and low self-compassion) were randomized to a self-compassion (Mage = 60.22 years) or control condition (Mage = 56.13 years). All participants received behaviour change education (e.g. SMART goals, action-coping planning) and either other health knowledge (control condition: e.g. sleep, benefits of water) or self-compassion training (intervention condition: practising mindfulness, writing a letter to themselves offering the same support that they would offer to a friend). The primary outcome was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of the trial. To be considered feasible, our outcomes needed to meet or surpass our pre-determined criteria (e.g. time for group formation: 14–20 participants per month). Feasibility was assessed by examining the recruitment rates, retention, adherence, fidelity, and capacity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants to determine trial acceptability. As a secondary purpose, we examined the means on key study variables (secondary and exploratory variables; see Table 1) at all planned time points (baseline, intervention-end, 6- and 12-week follow-up) to identify if they are suitable to include in the efficacy trial (see Additional Table 3). Results Eighteen participants were screened and randomized to one of two conditions. Retention, instructor fidelity, safety, capacity, adherence to most of the study aspects, and acceptability by participants and facilitators all met the criteria for feasibility. Recruitment rate, process time, and adherence to home practice were below our criteria, and we offer ways to address these shortcomings for the efficacy trial. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that it should be feasible to deliver our intervention while highlighting the alterations to components that may be altered when delivering the efficacy trial. We outline our changes which should improve and enhance the feasibility and acceptability of our planned intervention. Funding for this study was from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04402710 . Registered on 09 April 2020.
- ItemOpen AccessTransgender Eligibility Policy in Sport: Science, Ethics, and Evidence(Parnassos Press, 2017) Teetzel, SarahIn response to cases of high-profile athletes’ sex being called into question, prior to the 2012 London Olympic Games, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) updated its policy addressing the conditions under which athletes are eligible to compete in the women’s sport category. The IAAF’s policy, which stipulated the eligibility conditions that transgender athletes, as well as athletes with disorders of sex development (DSD) and hyperandrogenism, must meet to participate in high-performance sport, was subsequently endorsed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and remained in effect until 2015 when the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) ordered the immediate suspension of the policy. The decision rendered mixed reactions, with some dissenting voices echoing American athlete Summer Pierson’s (2011) view that “it is a privilege to compete, and in order to enjoy such a privilege, the sacrifice of certain rights is required” (323). To engage in moral evaluation of the policy, more information is needed about how the rules in force apply to and impact athletes. To gain new knowledge about athletes’ views of the sex verification regulations, athletes who identify as a trans and high-performance female athletes were invited to participate in semi-structured, in-depth interviews about their understanding of, and reactions to, rules governing sex verification in sport. Athletes, such as Pierson, who speak openly about their concerns regarding rule changes that promote inclusive sport have faced criticism and charges of intolerance, and may fear losing sponsorship opportunities for speaking their minds (Ljungqvist & Genel, 2005). For example, MMA fighter Ronda Roussey received negative publicity after questioning whether trans women MMA fighters compete at an advantage compared to athletes identified as female at birth (Samano, 2013). In discussing the results from this study, this presentation analyzes athletes’ public and private experiences supporting and challenging sex verification rules mandated by sport governing bodies, such as the IOC, IAAF, and CAS. The philosophy of sport literature is quite silent on the extent that athletes’ views should shape policymaking on contentious ethical issues. The perspectives of the people impacted most (that is, the athletes) certainly need to be included in the dialogue; however, the extent that their perspectives should be privileged over other views remains unclear. Thus, this chapter focuses on the impact of athletes’ voices in determining the moral acceptability of rule changes in sport.
- ItemOpen AccessAllyship in elite women’s sport(Routledge, 2020) Teetzel, SarahThroughout 2019, retired athletes Martina Navratilova (tennis), Sharron Davies (swimming), Kelly Holmes (athletics) and Paula Radcliffe (marathon) all spoke publically about what they perceive to be the unfairness of trans women competing in women’s elite sport. These successful athletes, all with a history of growing and promoting women’s sport, were simultaneously celebrated for sharing their thoughts on a complex issue, and labelled transphobic for expressing anti-inclusive and transphobic views. Navratilova, particularly, despite her long history of fighting for inclusion and to end homophobia in sport, faced a severe backlash for expressing anti-trans rhetoric. This paper examines the concept of allyship in the context of inclusion and fairness in sport. Conceptual clarification of what allyship involves and requires precedes an examination of whether athletes should be obliged to promote inclusive sport. I argue that elite women athletes have an obligation to promote women’s sport, but not one that extends as far as a requirement to actively act as allies. To support this conclusion, I argue that: 1) past and present trans athlete eligibility rules endorsed by the IOC are problematic; 2) the typical arguments from unfairness and performance advantages fail to demonstrate why trans athletes should not be welcome to compete; but 3) a requirement of allyship requires more from women athletes than we can reasonably expect. Being mandated to act as an ally, without full commitment, does more harm than good. Athletes thus are entitled to express their views, but sports organizations should be responsible for providing education to all athletes on the science and ethics of trans athlete inclusion.
- ItemOpen AccessResponse to Lawrence DJ: the global summit on the efficacy and effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy for the prevention and treatment of non-musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review of the literature(2021-07-20) Côté, Pierre; Hartvigsen, Jan; Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Corso, Melissa; Shearer, Heather; Wong, Jessica; Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Cassidy, J. D.; French, Simon; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Mior, Silvano; Poulsen, Erik; Srbely, John; Ammendolia, Carlo; Blanchette, Marc-André; Busse, Jason W.; Bussières, André; Cancelliere, Carolina; Christensen, Henrik W.; De Carvalho, Diana; De Luca, Katie; Rose, Alister D.; Eklund, Andreas; Engel, Roger; Goncalves, Guillaume; Hebert, Jeffrey; Hincapié, Cesar A.; Hondras, Maria; Kimpton, Amanda; Lauridsen, Henrik H.; Innes, Stanley; Meyer, Anne-Laure; Newell, David; O’Neill, Søren; Pagé, Isabelle; Passmore, Steven; Perle, Stephen M.; Quon, Jeffrey; Rezai, Mana; Stupar, Maja; Swain, Michael; Vitiello, Andrew; Weber, Kenneth; Young, Kenneth J.; Yu, Hainan